Human Anatomy Chapter One Notes Finished
Human Anatomy Chapter One Notes Finished KINE 2510-003
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Halie Bruck on Monday January 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KINE 2510-003 at University of Toledo taught by Jamal Bittar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Physical Education at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 01/11/16
Prof. Jamal Bittar Human Anatomy: The Human Body January 12, 2016 *THIS IS REWRITTEN FROM THE NOTES TAKEN IN CLASS THAT DAY* Anatomy The study of the structure of the human body Physiology The study of body function Subdisciplines of anatomy Gross Anatomy- study of structure that are visible to the naked eye Regional Anatomy- Structures that are found in a particular region of the body Systemic Anatomy- Study of organ systems Surface Anatomy- The study of the general form and superficial markings for an organ Microscopic Anatomy- Study of structures that are visible to the naked eye Cytology- Study of cellular structure and function Histology- Study of tissues Other branches of anatomy Developmental anatomy- Traces all the changes that occur in an individual from conception until death Embryology- Traces all the changes in first eight weeks (two months) of development Pathological anatomy (pathology) - Study of structures affect by diseases Radiographic anatomy- Study of structures that are visualized in x-rays (x- rays, cat scans, MRI, etc.) The Hierarchy of Structural Organization Chemical Level (Simplest) -Atoms form molecules Cellular Level -Cells and their functional subunits Tissue Level -A group of cells performing a common function -Connective Tissue (Support) -Muscular Tissue (Movement) -Epithelia Tissue (Cover) -Nervous Tissue (Control) *Two or more tissues is referred to as an organ* Organ Level -A discrete structure made up of more than one tissue Organ System Level -Organs working together for a common purpose Organismal Level (Most Complex) -The result of all simpler levels working in unison Integumentary System (“Skin”-Prevents a lot of infections) -Regulates body temperature (98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, KNOW FOR EXAM) -Enzymes function properly when body temperature is regulated -Forms external body covering -Protects deeper tissues from injury -Synthesizes vitamin D -Site of cutaneous receptors -Pain, pressure, sweat and oil glands, etc. Skeletal System- Stores the minerals (Calcium) -Protects and supports body organs -Provides a framework for muscles -Blood cells formed within bones -Bone marrow produces all your blood cells EXAM QUESTION: Where is your bone marrow? Muscular System -Allows manipulation of environment -Locomotion -Facial expressions -Maintains posture -Muscle contractions help keep your body upright -Produces heat Nervous System (Massive Control System) -Fast-acting control system -Responds to internal and external changes -Spinal cord, Brain, etc. Endocrine System (2 ndMassive Control System) -Nervous system tells glands when to secrete hormones in which regulate: -Growth -Reproduction -Nutrient Use Cardiovascular System (Made Up Of The Heart and Blood Vessels) -Blood vessels transport blood -Blood carries oxygen and carbon dioxide -It also carries nutrients and wastes Lymphatic System/Immunity (Least Familiar to Students) -Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels -Disposes of debris in the lymphatic system -Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) -Mounts attack against foreign substances in the body -Two functions: 1. Takes excess blood back to the heart. 2. Transports white blood cells to the Lymph nodes Respiratory System -Brings in oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide -Gas exchange occurs through walls of air sacs in the lungs -You have to have a blood PH of 7.4, if it drops below it tells your body that it is going into a coma *Know the parts in the respiratory system!* Digestive System -Breaks down food into absorbable units -Indigestible foodstuffs eliminated as feces -No ATP, no chemical reaction happens Urinary System (Maintains Water Balance) -Eliminates nitrogenous wastes -Regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance Male and Female Reproductive Systems -Overall function is to produce offspring -Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones -Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones -Mammary glands produce milk -In a healthy reproduction system, you should get and produce a great amount of cells Regional and Directional Terms -Anatomical Position- body upright, arms and hands facing anterior, feet are slightly apart -Person stands erect with feet together and eyes forward -Palms face anteriorly with the thumbs pointed away from the body -Regional Terms -Axial Region -Axis of body- head, neck, and trunk -Appendicular Region -Appendages- upper limbs, lower limbs -Directional Terms -Superior (to the head)/Inferior (away from the head) -Anterior (toward the front)/Posterior (toward the back) -Medial (on midline)/Lateral (to the side) -Superficial (anything close to the surface)/Deep (anything away from the surface) Body Planes and Sections -Frontal (coronal) plane -Lies vertically and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts -Transverse plane (Cross Section) -Runs horizontally and divides the body into superior and inferior parts -Sagittal planes -Vertical and divide the body into left and right parts -Median (midsagittal- equal left and right parts) plane -Runs along the midline -Parasagittal planes (para=surround) -Offset from the midline and unequal left or right parts Body Cavities and Membranes -Dorsal body cavity (Posterior) -Cranial Cavity (Brain) -Vertebral Cavity (Spinal Cord) -Ventral body cavity -Thoracic cavity- divided into three parts -Superior mediastinum (mediastinum- Contains the heart surrounded by the pericardial sac) -Pleural cavity -Pericardial cavity -Abdominopelvic cavity- divided into two parts -Abdominal cavity- contains the liver, stomach, kidneys, and other organs (spleen, small and large intestine) -Pelvic cavity- contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and rectum *Most specifically where is the heart found? Pericardial Cavity -Serous Cavities- a slitlike space lined by a serous membrane -Pleura, pericardium (wraps around the heart), and peritoneum (pancreas, kidneys, and large intestines) -Parietal Serosa -Outer wall of the cavity -Visceral Serosa -Covers the visceral organs (found on external surface) -Serous Fluid (Prevents friction) -Produced by both layers of the serous membranes Abdominal Quadrants **KNOW THIS FOR EXAM** -Abdominal quadrants divide the abdomen into four quadrants -Right upper quadrant (RUQ) -Left upper quadrant (LUQ) -Right lower quadrant (RLQ) -Left lower quadrant (LLQ)
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