BSC 2010 week 2
BSC 2010 week 2 BSC 2010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tori Ruby on Monday January 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2010 at University of Florida taught by Staff in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Integrated Principles of Biology 1 in Biological Sciences at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 01/11/16
January 11, 2016 Macromolecules: large molecules 4 biological macromolecules o Proteins o Nucleic acids o Carbohydrates o Lipids Polymers: all biological macromolecules except lipids Broken and formed by water o Condensation: removal of water creates covalent bonds between monomers Endergonic (anabolic): takes energy to perform o Hydrolysis: addition of water breaks bonds Exergonic (catabolic: releases energy Carbohydrates o Some are small and called “simple carbohydrates” o Some are big and called “polysaccharides” o Ribose and deoxyribose are two types of carbohydrates o Glucose, fructose, mannose, and galactose are four more o Monosaccharides are held together by covalent bonds o Sucrose is a disaccharide Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides o Starch Made of glucose Found in plants o Glycogen Made of glucose Highly branched Found in mammals o Cellulose Contains carbons Found in plant cell walls Lipids are hydrocarbons o Van der Waals interactions o Store energy in C-C and C-H bonds o Play structural role in membranes o Fat in animal bodies serves as thermal reactions o Two types of lipids Fats are solid at room temperature Oils are liquid at room temperature o Little polarity, extremely hydrophobic o Triglycerides 3 fatty acids Nonpolar Phospholipids o Hydrophobic tail, hydrophilic head o Form cell membranes Two types of energy o Potential (stored) energy o Kinetic energy: energy of movement and change o Energy can be converted from one to the other Laws of thermodynamics o Energy cannot be created nor destroyed o Entropy (disorder) tends to increase January 13, 2016 Nucleic acids: polymers specialized for storage, transmission, and use of genetic information o DNA o RNA o Nucleotides Oligonucleotides have 20 monomers, include small RNA molecules important for DNA replication o DNA and RNA are polynucleotides, the longest polymers in the living world o DNA: double stranded Cytosine bonds with Guanine Thymine bonds with Adenine o RNA: single stranded, sometimes folded into 3D structure by hydrogen bonds Cytosine bonds with Guanine Uracil bonds with Adenine o DNA replication DNA→transcription→RNA→translation→polypeptide o Two functions Replication Gene expression o Genomes Genes DNA sequences that are transcribed into RNA and translated to specific proteins o DNA base sequences reveal evolutionary relationships Closely related species have more similar base sequences Ex. Apes and humans share 98% of DNA base sequences Proteins o Major functions of proteins Enzymes: catalyze reactions; lower activation energy, therefore speeding up a reaction Defense (ex. Antibodies) Hormonal and regulatory proteins Receptor proteins Storage proteins store amino acids Structural proteins Transport proteins Genetic regulatory proteins o Protein monomers are amino acids Amino and carboxyl acid groups