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BSC 2010 week 2

by: Tori Ruby

BSC 2010 week 2 BSC 2010

Tori Ruby

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About this Document

January 11 and January 13 notes
Integrated Principles of Biology 1
Class Notes
Science, Biology
25 ?




Popular in Integrated Principles of Biology 1

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tori Ruby on Monday January 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2010 at University of Florida taught by Staff in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Integrated Principles of Biology 1 in Biological Sciences at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 01/11/16
January 11, 2016  Macromolecules: large molecules  4 biological macromolecules o Proteins o Nucleic acids o Carbohydrates o Lipids  Polymers: all biological macromolecules except lipids  Broken and formed by water o Condensation: removal of water creates covalent bonds between monomers  Endergonic (anabolic): takes energy to perform o Hydrolysis: addition of water breaks bonds  Exergonic (catabolic: releases energy  Carbohydrates o Some are small and called “simple carbohydrates” o Some are big and called “polysaccharides” o Ribose and deoxyribose are two types of carbohydrates o Glucose, fructose, mannose, and galactose are four more o Monosaccharides are held together by covalent bonds o Sucrose is a disaccharide  Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides o Starch  Made of glucose  Found in plants o Glycogen  Made of glucose  Highly branched  Found in mammals o Cellulose  Contains carbons  Found in plant cell walls  Lipids are hydrocarbons o Van der Waals interactions o Store energy in C-C and C-H bonds o Play structural role in membranes o Fat in animal bodies serves as thermal reactions o Two types of lipids  Fats are solid at room temperature  Oils are liquid at room temperature o Little polarity, extremely hydrophobic o Triglycerides  3 fatty acids  Nonpolar  Phospholipids o Hydrophobic tail, hydrophilic head o Form cell membranes  Two types of energy o Potential (stored) energy o Kinetic energy: energy of movement and change o Energy can be converted from one to the other Laws of thermodynamics o Energy cannot be created nor destroyed o Entropy (disorder) tends to increase January 13, 2016  Nucleic acids: polymers specialized for storage, transmission, and use of genetic information o DNA o RNA o Nucleotides  Oligonucleotides have 20 monomers, include small RNA molecules important for DNA replication o DNA and RNA are polynucleotides, the longest polymers in the living world o DNA: double stranded  Cytosine bonds with Guanine  Thymine bonds with Adenine o RNA: single stranded, sometimes folded into 3D structure by hydrogen bonds  Cytosine bonds with Guanine  Uracil bonds with Adenine o DNA replication  DNA→transcription→RNA→translation→polypeptide o Two functions  Replication  Gene expression o Genomes  Genes  DNA sequences that are transcribed into RNA and translated to specific proteins o DNA base sequences reveal evolutionary relationships  Closely related species have more similar base sequences  Ex. Apes and humans share 98% of DNA base sequences  Proteins o Major functions of proteins  Enzymes: catalyze reactions; lower activation energy, therefore speeding up a reaction  Defense (ex. Antibodies)  Hormonal and regulatory proteins  Receptor proteins  Storage proteins store amino acids  Structural proteins  Transport proteins  Genetic regulatory proteins o Protein monomers are amino acids  Amino and carboxyl acid groups


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