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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by clb13m on Monday January 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASH 1044 at Florida State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Middle Eastern History and Civilization in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/11/16
Celia Bonett January 6 2016 Introduction Module The Middle East is east of Europe. In regards to population size, the three largest countries that occupy the Middle East are Egypt, Turkey, and Iran. Hanley describes these countries to be the “core” of the Middle East. Next in size would be Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Syria. The smaller countries are Israel, Jordan, United Arabic Emirates, Lebanon, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain. These countries are considered to be in the Middle East in the political geography viewpoint, not linguistic or cultural. According to Stewart, the Middle East geographical boundaries are not clearly stated. Some consider countries to be a part of the Middle East if the state is in the Arab League. However, Turkey, Israel, and Iran are not members of this League. Sudan, Morocco, Libya, and Afghanistan are sometimes grouped into the Middle East as well. One cannot automatically assume an Arabic speaking, Islamic state is in the Middle East. For example, Indonesia is in Southeast Asia, yet has the largest Muslim population in the world, according to Michael Low. Fischer states that the Middle East, particularly “Iraq, Syria, Jordan, and Israel-Palestine” are not desert areas. He describes Mesopotamia as the “fertile crescent” due to its lush soil. Although there are deserts in the Middle East, mainly in Saudi Arabia and the Sahara, Stewart states there are other types of climate as well. Page 31 of chapter 2 states that there are mountains in Iran and Turkey, with fluctuation in the amount of rain from 7.9 to 15.7 inches. The Mediterranean climate changes throughout the year. The summers are dry, while the winters are wet, with colder temperatures. The three core countries speak different languages, which are the three main languages of the Middle East. Egypt speaks Arabic, Turkey speaks Turkish, and Iran speaks Persian. Page 40 of chapter 2 states that Sudan alone has over 400 languages and dialects. Arabic and Hebrew are Celia Bonett January 6 2016 Introduction Module Semitic languages. Turkish is a Turkic language, and has half the amount of speakers as those of Arabic. The Persian language, as well as Kurdish, is derived from Indo-European language.
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