CHEM 121 CHAPTER 1 OUTLINE
CHEM 121 CHAPTER 1 OUTLINE 20322
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Bates on Monday January 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 20322 at Eastern Michigan University taught by Vicki paulissen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Chem 121 in Chemistry at Eastern Michigan University.
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Date Created: 01/11/16
CHEM 121 CHAOTER 1 OUTLINE 1.1: Classes of Matter Matter is anything that has mass. Mass is the property that defines the quantity of matter in an object. Pure Substances can’t be separated by physical processes. By physical processes mean change in its physical state, that doesn’t change the chemical identities. Mixtures are composed of one or more substances and can be separated by physical processes. Homogenous mixtures are also called solutions. Compounds typically have properties that are very different from the elements of which they are composed. EX: table salt is made out of sodium and chloride, and these two elements alone are very harmful. The Law of constant composition states that every sample of a particular compound always contain the same elements combined in the same proportions. 1.2: Matter: An Atomic View An atom is the smallest representative particle of an element. Compounds are made of molecules. A molecule is a collection of atoms chemically bounded together in a characteristic pattern and proportion. Chemical formula tells us the number of each elements in a molecule. Atoms are linked by chemical bonds. 1.4: A Framework For Solving Problems Collect & Organize Analyze Solve Think about it COLLECT AND ORGANIZE visualize the problem identify key concepts sort through the info. assemble needed key info. ANALYZE Understand the problem and its concepts What does the question want you to find? SOLVE use units cancel things out when appropriate be aware of sig. figs. THINK ABOUT IT Does the answer make sense? Do the units make sense? Apply to everyday life. 1.5: Properties of Matter Some gases we CAN smell A pure substance has the same characteristics throughout Physical properties are something we can see and measure without changing the substance itself. Chemical Properties can only be observed by reacting it to form another substance. 1.6: States of Matter A solid has a definite volume and shape A liquid has a definite volume but not definite shape. A gas has neither a definite volume or shape. Gas is compressible We can change the state of matter by raising or lowering the temperature. Sublimation is transformation of a solid directly into a vapor. Deposition is transformation of a vapor directly into a solid. 1.7: The scientific method Scientific method evolved in the late Renaissance. A scientific theory is an hypothesis that have been supported repeatedly, and never disproved. When applying the scientific method, you continuously test your hypothesis by running experiments, collecting data, and interpreting results 1.8: Making Measurements and Expressing the Results There are seven SI base units (Table 1.2). Know how to convert from one unit to another!!!!! SIGNIFICANT FIGURES Zero at the beginning of a value aren’t significant Zero at the end of a value, and after decimal points are significant. Zero at the end of a value that contains no decimal may or may not be significant Zero between nonzero digits are significant. Significant figure rules should be used at the end of calculations. In calculations involving multiplication and division, the weakest link have the fewer sig. figs., so the final answer should have that amount of sig. figs. In calculations involving addition and subtraction, look at the decimal points to determine which place the final answer should go to. Measurements always have some uncertainty. Precision is when you constantly get around the same answer. Accuracy is when you get the correct answer. 1.9: Unit Conversion and Dimensional Analysis We often have to go from one unit to another in chemistry. It is important to know basic measurement conversions, refer to tables in chapter one!!! The numerator and denominator is equivalent Always add units!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Make sure the order of the fraction allows the right units to cancel. ALWAYS cancel units when necessary!!! For more practice go to chapter one problems or the problems we did in class!
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