Week Two Notes
Week Two Notes HIST 1311 - 002
Popular in U.S. History to 1865
Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Jones on Monday January 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1311 - 002 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Kristan Nicole Foust in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see U.S. History to 1865 in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 01/11/16
JAN. 25, 2016 U.S. HISTORY: LECTURE NOTES AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION RESULTS - We see a growth in the population and sedentary villages - They no longer have to be nomadic and follow buffalo. They hunt local smaller animals - More food meant more energy, and with more energy they had more babies - Almost all of their meals include potatoes, tomatoes, and corn SOCIAL STRATIFICATION - With settling people gained more leisure time and began specializing in different talents - This is when we saw the birth of artists, government officials, and religious leaders - Some used this an opportunity to gain power with what they specialized in - They learned how to preserve food & save it for winter and distribute it when supplies were low. This was called grain distribution. FARMING TECHNOLOGY - Aztecs developed farming technology and farmed on large mud mats in the river & developed canoes MONUMENTAL ARCHITECTURE - They created large monumental structures and palaces that were made mainly for religious traditions. - They performed human sacrifices where they take out the human heart still beating & give it to the sun god. MILITARY & EMPIRE - After settling we see the rise of specialized soldiers, everyone isn’t just hunters and gathers - They also began taking the neighboring people’s for human sacrifices instead of using their own. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE - They cleared land by burning everything because they believed it made they land more fertile and brought buffalo. - Many believe that this created the great plains and that there used to be more forests. They also believe this may have started global warming. - They hunted large animals into extinction - They were still unaware of how to practice sustainable agriculture at this time. THINGS THAT CAME FROM ISOLATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE OLD WORLD - Creation of the wheel - Gun Powder - Having a written language DISEASES IN THE OLD WORLD - Small Pox and Antibodies DISEASES IN THE NEW WORLD - Syphilis GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE IN THE OLD WORLD - Written Laws - Committees GOVERNMENT STUCTURE IN THE NEW WORLD - They had a sole ruler who decided everything. RELIGION IN THE OLD WORLD - Christianity(Monotheism) RELIGION IN THE NEW WORLD - Polytheism HIGHLIGHTING SOUTH AMERICAN TRIBES MAYANS - They had hieroglyphics as their written language (They were the only Native American tribe to have a written language) - Most of their writing for religious purposes - They had a ball game that was similar to soccer except you had to kick the ball through hoops that were very high up and sideways. The winners of the game had the “honor” of being sacrificed. - I imagine the game was a lot like this. Allow the ending about sacrifices is very inaccurate. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8pF03BXxUSY - They had more human sacrifices than any other Native American tribe. Aztecs - They had developed ways of farming on water - They called themselves Mexica (which is where the name Mexicans came from) - They also participated in human sacrifice - They had a social hierarchy with mobility (meaning you could move up and down the hierarchy) - The hierarchy included kings, nobles, artists, slaves, ect. - There was no welfare system meaning if you’re disabled or unable to provide for yourself you are seen as having no purpose in society. So most became slaves so that they could have clothes and food. - Slaves had much more freedom than what we typically think of for slaves. They could attain wealth, buy homes, have families ( and the children were not automatically slaves) , and they could even own slaves themselves. INCAS - They had a closed hierarchy system. Meaning it was very hard to move up or down within the system. - Their hierarchy consisted of an Emperor, 2 types of nobles, people related to emperor, rich people, and then everyone else - Their Empire was divided into 4 quads and each was ruled by a relative of the emperor. And he had a spy for each to check on them. - They didn’t have a written language - Kuzco is the capital - It took 12 days to walk the long road that went through the Empire - They had the quipo to keep records. PUEBLO CULTURE - In the beginning of their existence they built settlements on the land not in caves like how we usually think of them. - Chaco Canyon was major center of pueblo people - They moved to the cliffs and caves because they had problems with the nomadic tribes - Developed in New Mexico along the Rio Grande, Chaco Canyon - They were not considered an Empire because they didn’t conquer other people. They were made up of multiple towns that shared a common religion, language, art, building styles, agriculture but were not united - They dug pits to store corn in for when they experienced drought - They dug irrigation channels so that water could flow across fields - They had a large area of trade - Monumental architecture such as castle like structures - Each town had its own ruler, but would make alliances to defend against nomads MISSISSIPPI CULTURE - Complex culture - They had villages with their own leaders & only ever formed alliances, never were united - During this time was their agricultural boom - They traded pearls and art - They had Cahokia Monk’s Mound which was often used in religious ceremonies. It was made of many different layers of different dirt. It would’ve taken many years to create. Some of the dirt was brought from many different places. It would be where modern day Illinois is. - In the 13 century there were bout 40,000 people in settlement at Cahokia - After this we saw a decline in the Mississippi culture for various reason such as - Climate change - Deforestation - Over hunting - The culture survived until 1500s but with a much smaller population - The Cherokees, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creeks, and Seminoles are descendants of the Mississippi culture The Mississippi and Pueblo Cultures were the most advanced Native American groups at the time. Most lived in wood houses surrounded by crops This is very similar to how European peasants lived at that time. Powhatans - The powhatan confederacy was in eastern Virginia - They were in the area of early colonization Apache - They lived in teepees - They were nomadic - They wore headdresses - Mainly hunter/gatherers - They used every part of the buffalo for something - Did not use a lot of wood - Majority of Native Americans did not live like this - This is the stereotype of Native Americans most widely known and were the most talked about by Europeans. - These Native Americans lasted the longest because Europeans did not want their land as much as others. COMANCHES - Kept their society for a very long time - They did not live in as close contact as others so they had less exposure to disease - They survive until the 1800s
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