Week 1 Video Notes 1/11-1/14
Week 1 Video Notes 1/11-1/14
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Notetaker on Monday January 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Florida State University taught by David Houle in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views.
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Date Created: 01/11/16
WEEK 1 VIDEO NOTES Video 1: Scientific Method There is no clear, distinct, definition of the Scientific Method. Professor’s definition: The scientific method is a way of knowing about the world based on independently verifiable experiments and observations of the world. Other given definition: …a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. The scientific method accelerates what humans are already able to do. Parts of the scientific method (elaborated in the next videos): 1. Philosophy – Direct knowledge from the world 2. Techniques – What we do to come to conclusion 3. Ideas – What we think of our observations 4. Logic – How we actually go about it Video 3: Philosophy and Techniques Scientists should be objective – external evidence determines what we believe to be true. Treat science as provisional – if new evidence appears, we should believe it. Philosophy: The scientist: Strives to be objective Strives to be skeptical Treats scientific knowledge as provisional Values results that have been repeated, or are repeatable Techniques: How to make observations Scientist post their techniques and findings so that the findings are replicable Described in a scientific paper Manuscripts are published to then become a paper. To become peer-reviewed, manuscripts must be reviewed before they are published. The reviewer must be specialized in the field the paper encompasses. The purpose of techniques: To make observations To set up experiment To present the results of the experiment and observations to other scientists Results become scientific knowledge once they are reviewed by other scientists and then published in a scientific journal. Video 3: Ideas and Logic Facts are directly verifiable. Ideas are never completely true. There is always a partially false portion of an idea. A conjecture is an opinion formed on the basis of limited observation. A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomena. Typically a hypothesis is worth more than a conjecture. Theory – well confirmed set of hypothesis that act together to create a bigger image (“Pretty sure it’s true but it can be false”) Logic: Proper logic leads to true conclusions. Human thinking is NOT logic. Logically thinking limits the imagination and limits ideas Illogical thought process Ideas Logic Conclusions Video 4: Types of Logic used in the Scientific Method 1. Abduction- coming up with a reasonable conclusion (guessing) 2. Induction – using evidence to come up with explanation 3. Deduction – strongest argument that you can have. Must include hypothesis You can use more than one kind of logic. Induction and deduction usually go together because you use evidence to create a hypothesis and argument Video 5: Why read a scientific paper? To directly learn: What scientists claim to know How scientists came to this knowledge How reliable the evidence is for this knowledge What we currently don’t understand or know Be skeptical when you read. Secondary sources: These are all considered interpretations because they are not peer-reviewed, Books Websites Magazine articles Newspapers Reading scientific papers can help you get a degrees and help you do graduate work in science. Video 6: What’s in a scientific paper? IMRO Structure 4 parts: 1. Introduction 2. Methods and Materials 3. Results 4. Discussion “IMRD Sandwich”: Title List of Authors Abstract – summary IMRD Acknowledgements Literature cited (references) Introduction: Statement of general issue What is already known on the subject What is new/different/better in this paper What exactly will be discussed in this paper Materials and methods: Main purposed is for reproduction Gives a description of materials What was actually done in this experiment How the data was analyzed statistically Results: contents vary If the methods worked as intended Were the results related to the central hypothesis Follow up experiments (check contradictory results/ tests new hypothesis by original results) Discussion: contents vary Summary of main results Comparison of results from previous studies If certain results don’t agree Shortcomings of the study How could next study be improved Changes made to the study and what we know about the study How this knowledge can be applied When scientists make a statement of fact that is not of general knowledge, they cite the source they received that information from. Citation includes: Author(s), year published, journal name, and page #’s Video 7: How to read a paper When you don’t understand the papers contents: SWiSkEFoRS: Screen – is the paper worth reading? Winnow – get rid of the papers you don’t want to read (to remember this, look up definition of ‘winnow’) Skim Evaluate Focus Read Summarize Video 8 PART 2 Skim Pay attention to the introduction The first and last paragraphs are the most important Don’t get sucked into details Read the figures and tables Take notes on what you skim Evaluate Make brief outline of paper based on your skim (mentally) Is this paper of interest to you> Evaluate your own understanding of the paper Video 9 PART 3 Focus: 1. Make a plan for further detailed reading such as rereading and doing outside reading on critical topics that you may not understand. Consult professor or the mentor to get detailed explanations. 2. Carry out the plan. 3. Reevaluate what you’ve learned 4. Categorize why you don’t understand into Black holes- useless part of the paper Black Boxes – you can’t understand the process but you understand why something was done and the conclusion. These are OK. Read. - Be an active and skeptical reader. Ask yourself questions like these: 1. What does the paper ask? Are those questions answered? Does it make any contribution? 2. The authors chose a method, why did they choose this method? 3. Is the study relevant? 4. Studies are justified and what are the findings? 5. Does this study relate to another study? 6. What can this paper be applied to? Summarize Record your thoughts about the paper. Make an overall judgement Video 10: Levels of Why Proximal causation: direct influence on the event we’re trying to understand ex. why the sky is blue Ultimate causation: overall influence that causes more than one thing to occur ex. why the world exists Evolutionary medicine plays on both proximal and ultimate causes. Video 11 Why HIV Thought process of causation (Levels of Why explained) Why does HIV kill people? PROXIMAL CAUSE Susceptible to opportunistic infections HIV destroys the immune system Why does HIV destroy immune system? Used immune system cells to reproduce Why does HIV reproduce? ULTIMATE CAUSE If they fail to reproduce they can’t flourish Molecular biology DNA RNA protein HIV is an exception to this flow. HIV reverses DNA AND RNA flow. This is called reverse transcriptions. Antiretroviral drugs interfere with reverse transcription and break the virus life cycle. Video 12 Why HIV, PART 2 Why does HIV kill people? PETER DUESBERG’S HYPOTHESIS: HIV is not responsible for AIDS. controversial idea. This has been refuted by scientific evidence. HIV does cause AIDS. The life expectancy of people in South Africa with HIV/AIDS has gone up. CONSERVATIVE CHRISTIAN’S AMSWER: God created HIV to punish homosexuals Other Christians disagree. These views on God can’t be refuted by scientific evidence.