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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Painter on Monday January 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 232 at Radford University taught by Dr. Powers in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views.
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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Jessica!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
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Date Created: 01/11/16
Jessica Painter Midterm 1 1. What is GIS? Define the acronym and convince me you understand the concept explaining the parts of a GIS. GIS, or Geographic Information Systems is a computer system that stores information, captures information, analyzes information and presents that information in a specific fashion. 2. Briefly review some key historical landmarks for the development of GIS and explain the transition from cartography to the Geospatial Revolution. Include 4 bulleted points with approximate time frames (approximately to the decade) Some key historical landmarks for the development of GIS are: a. In 1854 John Snow found the source of a cholera outbreak in London. He did this by marking the points on a map where the victims of the outbreak lived. He traced it back to a common water sourse th b. In the early 20 century, the development of photozincography allowed us to split different maps into layers, so we can see multiple maps at the same time c. In 1960 there was development of the worlds first GIS that operated in Canada. d. In 1986 (MIDAS) was the first desktop GIS product that was used for the disk operating system 3. What are the three types of data that can be added into a GIS, and more specifically into the table of contents? a. Feature Layer b. Raster Layer c. Service Layer 4. What is a coordinate system and why do GIS analysts use projections? A coordinate system uses the longitudinal and latitudinal coordinates to pinpoint an exact location on the earth. GIS analysts use projections to transform the coordinates to XY coordinates, and use this for spatial data use projections. Jessica Painter 5. List two vector file extensions a. JPG b. EPS 6. What is the difference between raster and vector data? Provide some examples Vector data is a representation of the world using points, lines and polygons. Raster data is a representation of the world as a surface divided to a grid of cells. An example of this is using latitude and longitude. In vector data these are displayed as a line or point, in raster data these are in forms of closed shapes, where each pixel is a particular longitude and latitude. 7. What is a geodatabase and feature class? Define each and explain the differences between them. How is a shapefile different from a geodatabase? A geodatabase is the structure that ArcGIS uses for its data for editing and management of the data. A feature class is a collection of data that represents common features, such as roads or buildings. The difference between shapefile and geodatabase is that a shapefile is a simple nontopological format, and a geodatabase is a collection of geographic data sets of various types. 8. What are three methods or tools for finding what is nearby geographic features or for working with distance? a. Aggregate points b. Summarize nearby c. Summarize within 9. Explain conceptually how a join in GIS works. Why do we use them? A join is a devise that can put multiple layers on the geodatabase and look at it on one map. We use these for multiple reasons, but it helps in any situation that you need to see multiple layers for. 10. You will need to use ArcMap for this question and load the hydrants and zoning data from the D2L midterm folder. How many fire hydrants are in Radford City Zoning Districts for the university and for business districts together? (15pts.) Jessica Painter ***Help—the highlighted codes are for business and university CD Conservation DistrictR-1 Single-Family Residential DistrictR-2 Single-Family Residential DistrictR-3 Single- Family Residential DistrictR-4 Multi-Family Residential DistrictMu Mixed Use Residential/BusinessDistrictR-MH Manufactured Home Residential DistrictB-1 Limited Business DistrictB-2 General Business DistrictB-3 Central Business DistrictMD Medical Arts DistrictUD University DistrictM-1 Restricted Industrial DistrictM-2 General Industrial DistrictFP-1 Floodway DistrictFP-2 Flood-Fringe DistrictPUD Planned Unit Development Districts 11. Use ArcMap and the data from D2L. How many census tracts in Tennessee have more males than females and a median age less than 40? (15 pts.)