Human Biology Week 1
Human Biology Week 1 BIOL 1020
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Robyn Dixon on Monday January 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1020 at Southern Utah University taught by Dr. William Heyborne in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Southern Utah University.
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Date Created: 01/11/16
1.1 The Human Body 1. Structure of a part suits function of a part (The structure determines the function) a. Anatomy determines the Physiology i. Anatomy: the structure of a part ii. Physiology: the function of a part. 2. Body Parts a. Levels of Organization i. Chemical ii. Cellular iii. Tissue iv. Organs v. Organ Systems vi. Organism 3. Directional Terms a. All are relative to other body parts i. Anterior (Ventral)/ Posterior (Dorsal) 1. In front of the spine/ behind the spine ii. Superior/ Inferior 1. Towards the head/ Towards the feet iii. Medial/ Lateral 1. Towards the body midline (vertical)/ Away from the midline iv. Proximal/ Distal 1. Close to midline (horizontal)/ Away from the midline v. Superior/ Deep 1. Close to surface/ Further away from the surface, deeper inside body vi. Central/ Peripheral 1. Main system/ Secondary system a. Nervous Systems vii. Ipsilateral/ Contralateral 1. Same side/ Opposite sides a. Left foot & left hand are ipsilateral. b. Right hand & left foot are contralateral viii. Transverse 1. Horizontal sections ix. Sagittal 1. Vertical sections 4. Posterior Cavities a. Cranial Cavity: holds the Brain b. Vertebral: holds Spinal Cord c. Meninges: membranes that line the Posterior Body Cavity 5. Anterior Cavities a. Thoracic: heart, lungs, thymus gland (immune system), trachea, and esophagus i. Inside the ribcage b. Abdominopelvic: i. Superior (Abdominal): stomach, liver, spleen, gall bladder, most of small and large intestines 1.1 The Human Body ii. Inferior (Pelvic): rectum, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs, and the rest of the large intestine 6. Homeostasis a. The relative consistence of body’s internal environment i. External conditions change dramatically ii. Internal conditions stay within a narrow range iii. Illness occurs if internal conditions change too much b. Negative Feedback i. Primary homeostatic mechanism ii. Effector reverses the change in e internal environment c. Positive Feedback i. Effector continues to stimulate sensor so a greater change in internal environment occurs 1. Effector makes the condition worse ii. Helps complete process that has a cutoff point 1. Blood clotting a. Produces more blood to eventually stop the bleeding 2. Childbirth a. Contractions get gradually worse as labor progresses to move the baby 3. Breastfeeding a. Baby’s suckling releases more milk-producing hormones to replace the milk they drank. iii. Can be harmful
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