Week one notes: Geography 101
Week one notes: Geography 101 GEOG 101 800
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justin Notetaker on Monday January 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 101 800 at Ball State University taught by Michael James Hawkins in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Physical Geography in Geography at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/11/16
GEOG 101 : Online Chapter 1 Notes GEOGRAPHY AND SCIENCE - Geography “Earth Description” Studying The World Geographically - Geographers study is divided into 2 groups o Physical Geography Landforms Rocks/Minerals Water Weather/Climate Plants Animals Soil o Cultural Geography Population Economic Activities Languages Religions Political Systems Settlements Food Global Environmental Changes - Both human caused and natural processes that are currently altering the landscapes of the world. Globalization - Processes and consequences of an increasingly interconnected world. o Connections between the economies, cultures, and political systems of the world. - Geographers can offer insight into many of the worlds most pressing problems. The Process of Science - Scientific Method 1. Observe phenomena that stimulate a question or problem. 2. Offer an educated guess—a hypothesis—about the answer. 3. Design an experiment to test the hypothesis. 4. Predict the outcome of the experiment if the hypothesis is supported, and if the hypothesis is not supported. 5. Conduct the experiment and observe what actually happens. 6. Draw a conclusion or formulate a simple generalized “rule” based on the results of the experiment. - The scientific method is based on observation, experimentation, logical reasoning, skepticism of unsupported conclusions, and the willingness to modify or even reject long- held ideas when new evidence contradicts them. - Theory Highest order of understanding for a body of information—a logical, well tested explanation that encompasses a wide variety of facts and observations. Numbers and Measurements Systems - English System miles, pounds, and degrees Fahrenheit - International System ”Metric System” – Kilometers, kilograms, and degrees Celsius ENVIRONMENTAL SPHERES ANS EARTH SYSTEMS - Four Principle Components Earths Environmental Spheres Earth’s Environmental Spheres - Lithosphere Solid, inorganic portion of Earth, comprising of rocks of Earths crust as well as the unconsolidated particles of mineral matter that overlie the solid bedrock. - Atmosphere Gaseous envelope of air that surrounds Earth. Contains the complex mixture of gases needed to sustain life. - Hydrosphere Comprises water in all forms. o Cryosphere Water frozen as solid ice. - Biosphere encompasses all the parts of the earth where living organisms can exist. Earth Systems - System collection of things and processes connected together and operating as a whole. Closed Systems - Closed System Effectively self-contained and therefor isolated from influences outside that system. Open Systems - Most earth systems are OPEN SYSTEMS o Both energy and matter are exchanged across the system boundary. Inputs – Matter and energy that enter the system Outputs – Losses from the system to its surroundings Equilibrium - When inputs and outputs are in balance over time, the conditions within a system remain the same. Interconnected Systems - EX: o The system of an individual glacier is interconnected with many other earth systems, including earths solar radiation budget, wind and pressure patterns, and the hydrologic cycle. Feedback Loops - Positive Feedback change within a system continuing in one direction - Negative Feedback counteraction o Increasing a systems input tends to decrease further change. EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM - The earth is one of eight planets in the milky way galaxy o The milky way galaxy is one of billions of galaxies in the universe Origins - The Big Bang is generally accepted as the culprit to the creation of our universe. - Nebula a huge, cold, diffuse cloud of gas and dust. Planets - Terrestrial Planets o Mercury o Venus o Earth o Mars - Jovian Planets o Jupiter o Saturn o Uranus o Neptune
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