BIOL 1014, Chapter 1 Notes
BIOL 1014, Chapter 1 Notes BIOL 1014
Arkansas Tech University
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly Manning on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1014 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Holli H. Hall in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Into/Biological Science in Biological Sciences at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 01/12/16
Chapter 1 Notes Molly Manning 1.1 How does Biology affect your life? Raises questions, forces you to make informed decisions concerning important issues that come up in your life: o For Example: Diet/Exercise The Infidelity Gene: o AVPR1a: names of human genes are always capitalized and placed in italics. o Controls production of a protein called arginine vasopressin receptor found in membranes of nerve cell sin the brain and responsible for transporting the hormone arginine vasopressin from the bloodstream to the nerve cells. If someone gets less of this hormone, they may have less interest in their mate. Summary: Understanding Biology raises questions and allows for better informed life decisions affecting you and all of life on earth. 1.2 What are the features of life? Four common attributes are found in all living organisms: o Metabolism: The way different organisms take in energy and food to use in response to the environment, survival, and reproduction. o Inheritance and reproduction: Reproduction is an ability of all living organisms, and all spawn inherit their parent or parents biological information. o Evolution: All beings of life change over a period of time and are related to one another. All attributes of life are made as a result of evolutionary change. o Diversity: Proof of life’s evolutionary past due to the distinct, unique forms and patterns of evolution in living things. 1.3 How Do Organisms Function? Atoms o Building blocks of all physical things. o Composed of Electrons orbiting a central sphere or nucleus made of protons and neutrons. Protons (positively charged +) Neutrons (negatively charged -) Elements: Are final combinations of atoms due to their uniqueness and the fact that they cannot be broken down any further. Examples of Elements: Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen These four elements alone account for 96% of atoms in living organisms o Reactive Atoms vs. Inert Atoms The shell of an atom or the outermost orbital can accommodate a specific number of electrons. Inert Atoms: when the shell is filled, the atom is inert. Reactive: If the shell has the need for an electron, it combines with other atoms to either gain an electron, respectively, so they easily react with one another to form sodium chloride, or table salt. Chapter 1 Notes Molly Manning o Chemical Bonding: The sharing of electrons to combine different elements into molecules. Carbon + Oxygen chemically bonded = carbon dioxide Macromolecules o When many atoms form to make up large molecules they are called macromolecules. o Carbon based macromolecules/water make up the cell (the most fundamental unit of life). o The 4 main macromolecules consist of: Nucleic Acids Example: DNA Made up of nucleotides (subunit of a DNA molecule) Proteins Composed of amino acids (subunit of protein), regulate chemical reactions in cells, make up many of the parts of cells and organisms. Carbohydrates Sugars joined together o Example: Cellulose is the structural carbohydrate in plant cell walls. Starch – good food source Lipids Fatty acids and glycerol combined o Excellent energy source and provides insulation and shock absorbers for organs Cells o All living things are made up of and maintained by these small compartments o Cell membrane: Controls what enters and leaves the cell Contain water-soluble molecules and fats that don’t dissolve in water. These can’t cross the cell membrane unassisted Chemical Reactions and Enzymes o Molecules are taken apart to produce smaller components or joined to make larger structures which takes energy or releases it but require assistance of enzymes. Examples: Nucleotides forming DNA, requires energy Breakdown of starch, releases energy o Enzymes are proteins that make it easier for chemical reactions to occur. o Lower the amount of “Start-Up” Energy required in chemical reactions in cells/organisms. Energy Extraction and Use o Metabolism – all chemical reactions in cells that capture, extract, convert, and use energy. Energy comes from the sun that plants use to convert chemical bond energy to sugars. Organisms take that energy from food and use it for functions required for living. Chapter 1 Notes Molly Manning Energy Extraction and Use Cont’d Enzymes regulate metabolic reactions, and without these reactions won’t happen. 1.4 How Do Organisms Reproduce Inheritance o The passing of information from one generation to the next. o Your genes are made up of a unique combination of alleles provided by both of your parent’s genes. The only situation where yours wouldn’t be unique is if you have an identical twin, in which you would have very similar or equal alleles). Inheritance allows for growth, living, and reproduction. Reproduction o This is necessary because we can’t live forever due to our parts wearing out, and changes in the habitat. o Reproductions ensures that each new person inherits a full complement of genetic info stored in DNA. o The chemical properties of DNA store info and pass it along in two ways: Asexual Reproduction – No mother, father, or sex involved. DNA is copied into (2) sets, not always identical because of “mutations” or mistakes. Example of Asexual Organism o Single-celled organisms such as bacteria Sexual Reproduction – Egg from the mother fuses with the sperm cell from the father to form a new being. Parent’s DNA not just copied, but combined to create a unique being o Processes of reproduction and inheritance: Reproduction divides a chain of ancestors and descendants into generations and guarantees genetic continuity. New life only comes from existing life, not from non-living sources. The individuals in one generation differ from one another and from other generations because of the sexual shuffling of alleles. This genetic variation is the basis for evolution. 1.5 How Does Life Evolve? Alleles play an important role in diversity around the world because of common alleles in certain populations. o Example: Having Black hair and dark eyes in Africa. Changes in frequency of alleles reflect a genetic change in the population (or evolution) Darwin’s Theory o What he knew about inheritance: Individuals in a population vary from each other At least some of these variations are inherited In every population, many or most offspring die before reaching maturity Chapter 1 Notes Molly Manning o Descent with Modification – Certain offspring survive because they carry advantages (faster, bigger, better able to adapt, etc). The ones that don’t, die. Survivors reproduce and their offspring carry more common beneficiary traits. Natural Selection – the environmental conditions “select” which individuals would survive and reproduce. o Individuals do not evolve, species evolve, and occasionally reproduce a new species. Humans are vertebrates: Animals with internal skeletons made of bone with well-defined head that contain our brain and sensory organs. o All vertebrates have similar structures (from guppies to whales, including humans) A skull attached to a vertebral column that supports ribs, two pairs of limbs, and ends in a tail. o Mostly bones are the same, with same muscles that move them. o Also similarly organized blood vessels and nerves. 1.6 What Patterns of Diversity are Found in Nature? Life is Diverse o Living things constantly have to change in order to get what they need and keep up; which is why new species arise. When older specis adapt to the new and different living conditions. Evolutionary Diversification Leads to Degrees of Relatedness o The evolutionary tree is arranged in a hierarchy: Closely related species share a recent common ancestor (like your siblings share your parents), and they have much in common. If two species are in the process of splitting apart, it might be hard to tell them apart. The farther you go back in time, the fewer characteristics the species share. Organizing Hierarchies in the Diversity of Life o Species lie at one end of life’s hierarchy and are so genetically similar that they can interbreed successfully. Ex: Dogs are all different breeds, but any breed of dog can reproduce because they’re all dogs. o Natural diversity consists of a hierarchical organization of groups within groups. Dogs are included in wolves and coyotes…which are carnivores so they are included with cats and seals, which are mammals and all mammals are vertebrates. o Carolus Linneaus came up with the scheme of the hierarchy: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. The species is the smallest group and as you go up levels the groups include progressively more organisms. As a result of this hierarchical classification system, each organism can be assigned a unique scientific name, including its genus and species names. o Latin names, italicized, genus capitalized.
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