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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danae Sorensen on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FDWLD101-01 at a university taught by Brother Yost in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 122 views.
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Date Created: 01/12/16
1.1 Temple Pattern Creation- Garden- Fall- Long Journey – Final Judgment Creation, Garden, Fall: - story of Abraham Long Journey: - trials and temptations - Does with the help of God Final Judgment: - triumph - God accepts the final and ultimate triumph Jacobs Journey - Loss of innocence is immediate - Years and years to get his wife - Refinement begins at temple covenants - “Jacobs Ladder” - Same covenants as Abraham - A “holy spot” - Pillar - Gets new name: Israel Same patterns? - Nauvoo Temple - Odysseus - Gilgamesh - Catholicism Symbol? - Figure of expression of a literal reality - All communication has a symbolic system - Having meaning because they are given it by the culture that surrounds it - Best understood in their own historical and social context Symbols in Context 1. Historical 2. Social 3. Community 4. Multivalent: EX- swastika, snake, cross Many kinds of symbols - Art - Language: parables - Buildings 1.2 Judaism Melchezedek, Aaronic, Raddinical Judaism Endowment - Closest thing to the long journey pattern - Only version that administers ordinances of exaltation by the authority of true priesthood keys Other versions appear in arts - Help understand symbols Can learn truth both in and outside of the church Mormonism - All principles including life and salvation for time and eternity - All truth. “There is no truth but what belongs to the gospel” Mechezedek Temple Ordinances - Adam and Eve were the first to receive the ordinances - “enter into the sun of God” - priesthood blessings received only in the House of the Lord - Abraham, Isaac, Jacob - also tried to restore temple ordinances - Melchezedek and Aaronic - both teach the plan of salvation and other principles through symbols - Necessary for exaltation while Aaronic does not - primarily as symbolic teaching stations - to prepare - LDS chapels Symbols: Moses Temple The Courtyard - A less sacred place - Separated from outside by woven hanging white cloths (a gate) - Two inner courts - hanging cloths are blue, red, purple, white - walls made of Gold - veils between Holy Place and Holy of Holies The Furnishings - Shows the way back to God - Alter- sacrament - Laver (water basin)- baptism - Holy Place- newness of people - Candelabrum – Holy Ghost - tree of life- atonement and eternal life - Shewbread- Gods word meaning the “bread of life” - Alter of Incense- prayer - Fabric of the veil - figures of cherubim/angels - guardians of that which is holy - only can get back to God through the atonement - if we keep our promises the angels will let us pass to Gods presence - Ark of the Covenant- Presence of God - lid: mercy seat, throne of God - Furniture- have faith in Christ Robes of the Priesthood and Colors - Ritually washed - cleaned and anointed - consecrated to God - signifies they were a new person - reborn through the atonement - Miter - round hat - crowned with glory - Blue robe- one piece, no seams, wholeness - Ephod - vest or apron - God carries burdens - 12 gems on breast plate - 12 tribes - close to the heart meaning close to God - Bells/pomegranates - sweetness of God - Red- Gods blood - Blue- virtue - Purple- royalty - - gold- incorruptibility - The coverings - badger skin- protection - ram skin (dyed red)- Gods sacrifice - goat hair- sin offering - fine cloths- righteousness Sacred Space - Holy of Holies - Center of the Camp - Israel The Laws of Clean and Unclean - Daily and seasonal chore to help remind them of the need of holiness - Yon Kippur - day of atonement - most sacred day of the year - the would release a goat symbolizing that God was the “scape goat” showing them of Gods forgiveness - Laws of Kashrut- fitting or proper - Kosher food prohibitions - “keeping Kosher” - Good: - cloven hoof - chew cud - fins and scales - pigeons/pigeon/chicken - Bad: - pigs - horses - shrimp - birds of prey - Unclean things - mother after giving birth - married couple after having sexual relations - lepers - women on their periods - people who touch dead bodies - men with unhealed wounds - Cleansing ceremony was just a washing - Unclean did not mean evil - ineligible to make ceremony ritual purposes - Reminder that we are a fallen people and that we need the atonement to get back to God - Laws of Kashrut becomes less of a symbol and more of a literal law leading to crazy food laws Sadducees - Powerful - Small group - Controlled and administered the temple Pharisees - Separatists - avoids the Gentiles - reduced religion to an observance and ceremonial rules - AD 70- the temple was destroyed by the Romans and only the Pharisees remained Three Major Jews 1. Orthodox - Modern: Jewish law and was a part of society - Hasidic: -lives separate from society and has a distinctive dress code - they believed that the whole Torah was given to Moses -613 commandments the written directly from God 2. Reform Judaism - Started in Germany in 1800 - Was a reaction against the strict Orthodox Jew rules - Rejected most rituals - Believes the Torah was written by separate sources 3. Conservative Judaism - Orthodox and reform Jews - first synagogue was built in 1913 called The United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism - believes the Torah was transmitted by humans and not God alone Who is a Jew? - Mother has converted to Judaism - more like a nationality - Earns citizenship- Bar Mitzvah Synagogue - Church - No temple has been built since the temple of Herod was destroyed in AD 70 - Torah Scrolls - placed in ark (holy cabinet) - opening the door of the ark is considered a great honor Jewish Beliefs - No formal set of rules exist but the following is a basic idea of what they believe in 1. God exists 2. God is one. All things come from God - actions are more important than belief 3. God is neither male or female 4. God is eternal 5. Prayers should only be to God 6. Words of the prophets are true 7. Moses is the greatest prophet of all of them 8. Torah was given to Moses 9. No other Torahs in the world 10.God knows every thought and every deed 11.God will reward the good and punish the evil 12.The Messiah will come 13.The dead will be resurrected 1.3 The Creation and the Fall Moses: 31 versus Abraham 4-5: 52 versus Purpose? - Scientific instruction - Many books are filled with Gods understanding of biology, chemistry, and physics that he used to create the Earth - The main purpose is not scientific instruction. It is to bring us closer to Christ and to reveal gospel principles leading to him We need to look at it theologically rather than just scientifically The earth was created as a place of testing (Abraham 3: 24-25) Book of Moses (the creation) - Meant to be read symbolically - Wants you to read between the lines - Always compares is opposites. Ex: land and waters, sun and moon/stars Historical Christianities view of the Fall - Adam and Eve were supposed to live together forever in the garden with God - Their only obligation was obedience - The solution to overcome the fall? - send Jesus to redeem humanity through the atonement LDS view of the Fall - Adam and Eve did what God wanted them to do - First part of the Plan of Exaltation - 2 Nephi 2:22-25 Doctrine - Adam and Eve chose to become mortal and natural - Needed to live a mortal life as Christ so they can receive eternal life - The atonement and the fall are two parts of the same plan - If there was no fall then there would be no need for the atonement - The fall makes the test on earth possible Reading the Metaphor - Don’t read too literally - Symbolic presentation that will teach us about our test - The most important aspect of the fall is the instruction on the mortal condition and our need for the atonement Seeing Figuratively - Meant to be figurative but many see it as literal - Interpreting everything literally or figuratively will lead us to error Symbolism in the account of the fall - Forbidden fruit - The fall is our story when we are disobedient - God put the tree of good and evil in the garden and gave Adam and Eve choice to choose for themselves - “they shall surely die”: spiritually die and become immortal - Eve was made from Adams rib - relation of eternal marriage - “neither is a man without a woman or a woman without a man” - Men and woman can’t be exalted without each other - They are to be one in purpose as the strive to become like heavenly father - Not was not a shameful fall or a sin - Great difference between transmitting a law and not committing a sin - Transgression: crossing over - Progress: to go forward - Regress: to go backwards - Digress: to go to the side - Adam and Eve crossed over from immortality to mortality - Cherubim - represents judgment - they guard sacred things - tree of life it eternal life - we will be judged and cant inherit eternal life unless we have changed - represents bishops and stake presidents - they guard the right to enter into the temple by the temple recommend interviews - Adam and Eve represents each of us - we can partake of the tree of life if we are found worthy - The path to the tree of life is through the atonement b obedience - If we keep covenants then we can pass the cherubim and continue into the presence of God and enter into exaltation - Because we are fallen we cannot inherit Father glory unless we choose good with our own agency (3 article of faith) The serpent - Satan’s agent - Satan uses other people to tempt us - He is sly, devious, and subtle - Seeks to destroy agency by keeping us from the truth - Moses 4:4 The apron - Used to clothe Adam and Eves nakedness - If we do not admit we have sin then there is no need for motivation to change - “bishops interview” Cursing the Serpent - God takes away the serpents legs to make it more sly - Satan has no power over us unless we let him - The curse - Christ has power over Satan bruised head Instructions of God - Show that man and women have different rolls in the family - women’s role is to conceive and raise children - Men’s role is to provide for the family - both have equal responsibilities Coats of skin - Adam and Eves modesty and protection - Relation to the temple garments 1.3 Mesopotamia and the Epic of Gilgamesh Epic of Gilgamesh - Another example of the temple pattern - An ancient Mesopotamia literature Mesopotamia History Mesopotamia: Greek; meaning the land between rivers ( Tigris and Euphrates) No Mesopotamian people like there were Egyptians or Romans Sumeria: Early Dynastic Period; 2900-2334 BC - First literate inhabitants - Established cities of Kish, Uruk, UR - Etana of Kish: first ruler recorded - Gilgamesh reigned around 2600 BC Akkadian Empire: 2334-2218 BC - Semetic language - Sargon: civilization conquest Gutians: 2218-2047 - Group of mountain tribes from the east - Not good administrators - Ur III period- 2047-1940 - Abraham during Ur 1900 - Sumerian renaissance - took the city of Akkad Amorites: 2000-1600 - From Syria and Canaan and settled in Sumer and Akkad - Ruled for approximately 400 years - Hammurabi: king of Babylon - added 282 regulations to the land - “eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth” - EX: perjury, theft, drinking, etc… - Any crimes that were punishable by death were sent to a trial - EX: kidnapping, theft, incest, etc… - Hammurabi’s codes lead others to lead their cities into a similar just society - Stela of Hammurabi - meeting of Hammurabi with the sun God, Shamesh - rays of sun/holding a measuring rod and rope: justice and power - Hammurabis raised right hand: familiar greeting - earthly law stand while divine judge sits - temple throne: mountain meeting sight Kassites: 1531-1155 BC - Came from Zagros Mountains - King established trade and diplomacy and marriage with Egypt, Elam, Hittites Assyria: 1124-612 BC - Became an important power th - In 18 century - conquered southern Mesopotamia and moved into modern Israel - Conquered Israel which later became known as the ten lost tribes Babylonia: 626- 587 BC - Overthrew Assyrians in 626 - Capital of Neo-Babylonian Chaldean Empire - Symbol of the wicked - Attacked Judah - Destroyed Jerusalem in 587 BC - Conquered by the Persians in 537 BC -Mesopotamia Religion Beliefs- Gods and rituals Things are given by force by divinity - God guided and controlled cosmos - Every aspect has rules called “me” - EX: weapons, sex, art, wisdom The pantheon - 7 most powerful Gods - Anu, Enlil, Ninhursaga, Ea, Sin, Shamesh, Ishtar Anu - Vault of the sky - Supereme/Father of the Gods - Seen as a mighty bull - Kids are the Annunaki: Gods of the underworld - Patron God of the city of Uruk - Rain is his semen fertilizing the earth Enlil - Power of the air/wind/ storms nd st - 2 in theory but in 1 in practice - Power of destruction - Patron God of the city of Nippur Ninhursaga - Mother Goddess - Goddess of faith - Bearer of all living things - Power of the Eastern Mountains Ea - God of the waters - His water fertilized the earth - Very wise and clever against demons - Saved man from the flood - Patron God to the city of Eridu Sin - Moon God - First child of Enlil and Ninlil - Patron God of the city of Ur Shamesh - Sun God - God of Justice - Patron God of Larsa and Sippar Ishtar - Goddess of Love, storehouses, dates, sheepfolds, war, morning and evening star, harlots - Power seeker - Patron God to the city of Uruk The Underworld - The people don’t believe in a happy after life - Contains a man devourer river - No one could get out unless someone took their place - Ruled by - Erishkigal: Goddess of death and gloom - Nergal- God of plagues Personal Religion - Fear driven - World was filled of evil demons - Didn’t fully understand their Gods - Makes sacrifices and offerings to try to keep their Gods happy - Magical devices for defeating hostile demons were often - Believed in omens - read animal entails of sacrificed animals - pattern of oil poured over water - smoke patterns of incense - hair color - fingernail and toenail shape - placing of moles - Dream interpretations - Astronomy readings Mans relationship to the Gods - man was made out of clay - to serve the Gods by making them goods Priesthood - duties were put onto kings - provided special offerings in the temple - priests had special training - only well born and physically perfect - En: - spiritual head of the temple - always the opposite gender of the temples God/Cities God Mesopotamian Temples - Ziggurat: to build high - Step pyramid with a shrine at the top - Dedicated to the city protector - The only place that joined heaven and earth - Gives more information on the story of Babel - Builds a great tower to “give themselves a name” that would “reach to heaven” Introduction to the Epic of Gilgamesh LDS temple pattern- long journey back to God - Endowment journey - the fall - teaches about our need for the atonement - What we must do to have the atonement in our lives The two parts teach us the plan of exaltation Follows the “creation- garden- fall- long journey- final judgment” pattern - Creation/garden - brief - Gilgamesh as a perfect son - mortal and immortal - Fall - changing of natures of Gilgamesh and Enkidu - changes from an innocent state - Long Journey: two parts 1. Mountains; battles Humbaba; gains pride; kills the bull of Heaven; faced with mortality 2. Trial test and temptations; cannot find mortality; no positive ending
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