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Law 322 Week 2 Notes

by: Stephanie Notetaker

Law 322 Week 2 Notes LAW 3220

Stephanie Notetaker
GPA 3.7

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These notes cover Chapters 3 and 4.
Legal Environment of Business
Edward R. Claggett
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Notetaker on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LAW 3220 at Clemson University taught by Edward R. Claggett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Legal Environment of Business in Law and Legal Studies at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 01/12/16
Law  322   Chapter  3  &  4  Notes   Chapter  3   Basic  Trial  Procedures     • **On  test**Federal  Rules  of  Civil  Procedure-­‐govern  litigation  in  the  U.S  in   civil  trials   o Most  states  have  adopted  these  rules   o They  say  these  are  steps  (basic  trial  procedure)  of  the  trial  and  they   go  in  this  order   ▯ Pleading  Stage   • Consists  of  a  complaint  and  an  answer   • The  plaintiff  files  a  complaint  with  the  court,  the   complaint  has  to  include  why  the  court  has  jurisdiction   (subject  matter  and  personal  jurisdiction)  over  this   dispute,  a  summary  of  the  facts  (why  are  we  here),  and   what  remedy  the  plaintiff  is  asking,  if  they  win  what  are   they  asking  for     • The  plaintiff  makes  sure  that  the  complaint  and  the   summons  gets  personally  served  on  the  defendant   o If  this  doesn’t  happen,  then  you  don’t  have   personal  jurisdiction   • The  defendant  files  an  answer  (a  legal  term)  to  the   complaint.  The  answer  can  include  a  motion  to  the  court   to  dismiss  the  case  for  a  lack  of  jurisdiction,  an   allegation  that  the  court  needs  to  dismiss  this  complaint   because  there’s  no  law  against  it,  affirmative  defense   saying  even  if  what  the  plaintiff  is  saying  is  true  you   can’t  fine  me,  examples  of  affirmative  defenses:  statue   of  limitations  (a  limited  amount  of  time  that  the   defendant  has  to  file  the  complaint),  assumption  of  risk   (if  you  are  fully  informed  about  damages  but  you  use  it   anyway),  contributory  negligence  (its  okay  to  look  at   the  plaintiffs  actions,  it’s  a  partial  defense),  a  counter   claim  (a  statement  by  the  defendant  filing  a  complaint   against  the  plaintiff)   o **On  test**Defendant  files  an  answer  to  the   complaint,  plaintiff  files  a  reply  if  there  is  a   counter  claim   • Its  common  for  the  defendant  to  admit  or  deny  the   complaint  in  the  answer   ▯ Discovery  Stage   • Designed  to:   o Encourage  pretrial  settle   o Preserve  evidence     • Court  strongly  enforces  discovery  in  civil  trials   • Types  of  discovery   o Depositions-­‐you  being  questioned  and   answering  under  oath,  can  be  used  just  like   testimonies  of  trial   o Written  interrogatories  –get  a  list  of  written   questions  and  have  time  to  look  things  up  and   respond  to  the  questions  in  writing  under  oath   o Order  for  production  of  documents-­‐businesses   cringe  about  this,  very  time  consuming  and   expensive,  if  they  hide  any  documents  the  court   will  be  all  over  them   o Request  for  admissions  of  fact-­‐we  need  to   determine  the  facts  now  and  upfront,  the  court   encourages  this  to  get  a  certain  amount  of  facts   out  of  the  way   o Order  for  mental  or  physical  exam-­‐certain   crimes  require  a  certain  state  of  mind   • Court  takes  discovery  very  seriously  and  has  two   weapons  **look  these  up**   • At  the  end  of  discovery,  either  party  can  make  a  motion   for  summary  judgment   o Look,  you’ve  seen  all  the  facts  and  you  know   what  that  law  is  and  you  know  who  should  win,   the  judge  can  render  an  opinion  right  then  and   the  trial  is  over   • Each  party,  to  their  litigation,  bares  their  own  cost  in   the  U.S,  in  the  U.K,  the  loser  pays  the  winners  legal  costs   ▯ Pretrial  stage  (optional  stage)   • The  plaintiff,  lawyer,  and  judge  are  there   • Used  to  clarify  any  open  issues,  or  to  clarify  the  courts   calendar   • Its  an  ideal  situation  for  the  judge  to  strongly  encourage   the  parties  to  settle  out  of  court   ▯ Trial  Stage   • 1 -­‐  whether  or  not  you  ask  for  a  jury  trial   o Only  entitled  to  jury  trial  when  they  are   monetary  damages   • Voir  Dire-­‐  lawyers  questions  the  jurors  to  see  if  they  are   biased  towards  the  case,  lawyers  have  a  limited  number   of  exclusions,  unlimited  number  to  exclude  for  cause   • Both  lawyers  make  opening  statements     o Not  evidence  or  testimony,  saying  here  is  what   I’m  going  to  prove   • Direct  testimony  and  evidence   • Lawyers  get  to  make  a  closing  statement  saying  here  is   what  I  proved   • Motion  for  a  directed  verdict-­‐  its  clear  a  certain  client   wins  on  the  spot   • Send  the  case  to  the  jury  if  no  motion  for  a  directed   verdict   • The  judge  will  summarize  the  law,  who  has  the  burden   of  proof  and  what  it  is   • Jury  reaches  a  verdict,  either  lawyer  can  stand  up  and   make  a  motion  for  the  judgment  against  the  verdict   • If  the  judge  agrees,  he  can  reverse  the  verdict   ▯ Remedies   • Monetary  damages   o Compensatory  damages-­‐made  to  compensate   you  for  economic  loses  occurred  like  cost  for   physical  therapy,  designed  to  put  them  back  into   the  same  economic  position  had  you  not  violated   the  law   o Punitive  damages-­‐if  someone  violates  the  law   and  its  not  the  first  time  they  have  done  it,  the   judge  can  asses  these  damages,  designed  to  get   your  attention  and  change  your  conduct   o Nominal  damages-­‐  we  agree  you  violated  the  law   but  there  weren’t  any  damages   • Equitable  relief   o Specific  Performance-­‐Court  order  specially   ordering  the  other  party  to  do  something  like  a   unique  piece  of  property  that  money  cant   compensate  it,  won’t  happen  over  services  like   saying  someone  will  paint  their  house   o Injunction-­‐Asking  for  a  court  issue  injunction   asking  them  not  to  do  something,  husband  and   wife  are  getting  divorced,  husband  puts  the   house  on  the  market,  wife  can  go  to  court  and   say  she  owns  the  house,  the  court  can  issue  an   injunction  saying  he  cannot  sell  the  house  until   the  divorce  preceding’s  are  finished,  asking  them   not  to  do  something  until  something  else  occurs   ▯ Appellate  stage   • Get  here  by  filing  a  written  brief  to  the  appellate  court   saying  this  is  what  was  done  wrong   o You  cannot  appeal  questions  of  fact   • Three  types  of  decisions:   o Majority  opinion-­‐means  2  of  the  3  agree  that   party  A  wins  and  he  wins  for  this  reason   o Concurring  opinion-­‐the  3  judge  says  that  he   agrees  party  A  wins  but  for  a  different  reason   rd o Dissenting  opinion-­‐  the  3  judge  says  he  thinks   the  plaintiff  wins,  doesn’t  agree  with  the  other  2   judges   • Can  affirm  the  lower  court,  can  reverse  the  lower   court’s  decision,  can  remand  (send  the  case  back  to  the   lower  court)  they  need  an  issue  clarified  to  us  before   making  a  decision,  can  modify  (usually  happens  in  the   amount  of  damages  awarded)   • Appellate  court  makes  a  decision,  has  the  option  to  send   it  to  the  Supreme  Court   • Once  it  is  decided,  you  cannot  be  tried  again  (final   judgment)     ▯ Enforcement  stage   • How  do  I  enforce  this  court  ordered  judgment?   • Does  this  person  own  any  assets?   o You  can  ask  the  court  for  writ  of  execution,   allows  the  court  to  have  these  items  sold  in  an   auction  to  get  them  their  money   • Does  this  person  have  a  job?   o Ask  the  court  for  a  garnishment  order,  which   allows  them  to  get  up  to  25%  of  their  net  pay   every  pay  period  until  they  have  all  their  money   ▯ Alternative  Dispute  resolution  methods   • Way  to  settle  out  of  court   st • 1 -­‐  arbitration     o Two  parties  agree  to  use  a  neutral  3  party  to   help  resolve  the  issue   o Subject  matter  expert  in  the  matter  of  dispute   o Two  types-­‐binding  and  nonbinding   ▯ If  you  agree  to  binding  arbitration,  the  U.S   court  says  that  it  is  binding,  once  the   decision  is  made  you  cant  go  to  court   ▯ Non-­‐binding-­‐  you  can  still  go  to  court  if   you  don’t  like  the  decision   o Quicker,  less  expensive   o You  can  pick  your  set  of  arbitration  rules   • 2 -­‐mediation   rd o Used  a  neutral  3  party  called  a  mediator   o Subject  matter  expert,  usually  resolving  labor   disputes   o Totally  voluntary,  no  binding  mediation   rd • 3 -­‐  negotiation     o Least  formal,  less  minor  disputes   o Two  parties  get  together  and  talk  about  issues,   evaluating  strengths  and  weaknesses  in  the  issue   o If  they  can  agree,  it  is  reduced  to  a  written   contract,  this  is  a  formal  contract,  can  be  sued   after  the  fact   #4-­‐deals  with  arbitration,  you  have  to  arbitrate  before  court     Chapter  4       • U.S  Constitutional  Law   o Important  because  it  is  the  highest  law  in  the  U.S   o If  anything  conflicts  with  it,  it  can  be  held  invalid   o It  created  our  system  of  government   o Gives  all  of  us  certain  rights,  the  rights  will  never  be  taken  away   unless  the  constitution  is  amended   o Consists  of  7  articles   ▯ 1  article-­‐deals  with  the  make  up  and  powers  of  Congress   • Congress  consists  of  two  branches   • Members  of  the  house  of  representatives  are  elected   over  2  years   o Larger  states  have  more  representatives   • Senators  get  elected  every  6  years   • Any  bill  to  raise  revenue  (taxes)  has  to  start  in  the   house  of  representatives     • When  congress  passes  a  law,  they  have  the  send  that   law  to  the  president,  if  he  vetos  it  then  it  goes  back  to   the  house  and  senate,  if  they  can  get  2/3  to  vote  for  it   then  it  becomes  a  law   • Lists  the  powers  of  congress   o To  levy  and  collect  income  taxes   o To  regulate  interstate  commerce   o Power  to  declare  war   o Necessary  and  proper  clause   ▯ Hard  for  businesses  to  challenge  this   control   o Can  pass  any  support  legislation   ▯ 2 -­‐how  you  select  the  president,  the  powers  the  executive  has   • President  elected  every  4  years   • Members  of  the  electoral  college  that  technically  elect   the  President   • You  can’t  be  a  candidate  for  president  unless  you  are  a   natural  born  citizen   • President  is  the  commander  and  chief   • President  has  the  power  to  enter  treaties   • President  has  to  from  time  to  time  give  congress  the   state  of  the  union  address     ▯ 3 -­‐the  judicial  system,  created  the  supreme  court   • All  criminal  tries  you  have  a  right  to  a  jury  unless  its  an   impeachment  trial   ▯ 4 -­‐deals  with  the  role  of  the  states  and  the  federal  system   • Full  faith  and  credit     o States  support  acts  and  laws  of  other  states   • If  you  are  citizen  of  one  state  you  are  a  citizen  of  other   states,  you  shouldn’t  be  treated  differently   th ▯ 5 -­‐how  you  amend  the  constitution   • 2/3  of  both  the  house  and  senate  (congress)  proposes   an  amendment  to  the  constitution  and  then  it  goes  to   the  state  for  ratification  and  then  ¾  of  the  states  have  to   vote  to  ratify  it   ▯ 6 -­‐makes  it  clear  the  U.S  constitution  is  the  supreme  law  in  the   united  states     ▯ 7 -­‐method  for  ratifying  the  constitution     o Bill  of  Rights  (in  the  constitution)  first  10  amendments   ▯ 1 -­‐  freedom  of  religion,  press,  and  speech   ▯ 2 -­‐  a  well  regulated  militia  being  necessary  to  the  security  of   state,  the  right  of  the  people  to  keep  and  bear  arms  shall  not  be   infringed  (gun  control)   ▯ 3 -­‐  no  soldier  can  be  quartered  in  your  house  without  your   consent     th ▯ 4 -­‐nobody  should  be  subjected  to  an  unusual  search  or  seizure   • Must  have  a  warrant  by  the  judge  to  use  evidence  in   trial   • In  highly  regulated  areas  to  protect  the  public,  you  don’t   need  a  warrant   • 5 -­‐  you  can’t  be  compelled  to  testify  against  yourself  in   a  criminal  trial,  does  not  apply  to  businesses  (no  5   amendment  protection),  states  have  laws  (eminent   domain  laws-­‐taking  private  property  for  public  use)  to   take  some  of  your  property  for  public  use  and  if  they  do   that  they  have  to  give  you  compensation  (market  value)   o Can  only  claim  this  if  it  is  for  yourself,  personal   information   • 6 -­‐  in  all  criminal  prosecutions  you  have  the  right  to  a   trial   th • 7 -­‐  in  every  common  law  trial,  where  the  amount  of   dispute  exceeds  $20,  you  are  entitled  to  a  jury  if  you   want  one,  and  you  cannot  appeal  questions  of  fact   • 8 -­‐  no  excessive  bail  or  fines  shall  be  imposed,  no  cruel   or  unusual  punishment     th • 9 -­‐  what  we  have  given  you  are  the  rights  we  think  are   important,  there  are  other  rights   • 10 -­‐  if  we  haven’t  given  exclusive  power  to  the  federal   government  then  states  have  power  to  play     • 11 -­‐the  laws  of  the  United  States  do  not  control  if  there   is  a  dispute  on  foreigners     th • 12 -­‐  deals  with  the  electoral  college   • ***13 -­‐abolished  involuntary  servitude     o Congress  continued  to  pass  legislations  to  go   along  with  this   • 14 -­‐  deals  with  due  process  and  equal  protection   o Due  process-­‐  says  follow  the  rules  and  follow  the   process   o Equal  protection-­‐  treat  people  equally   • 15 ,  19 ,  24 ,  26  –all  dealing  with  voting  rights   th o 15 -­‐no  person  shall  be  denied  the  right  to  vote   because  of  race,  religion,  etc.   o 19 -­‐no  person  shall  be  denied  the  right  to  vote   based  on  sex  (gave  women  the  right  to  vote)   o 24 -­‐no  person  shall  be  denied  the  right  to  vote   for  failure  to  pay  a  poll  tax   o 26 -­‐  any  resident  or  citizen  18  years  or  older  has   the  right  to  vote   • 16 -­‐  congress  has  the  power  to  levy  and  collect  taxes  on   income   • 17 -­‐  clarifies  the  senate,  each  state  has  2  senators   • 18 -­‐  prohibition  amendment,  the  only  amendment  ever   repealed     • 20 -­‐  administrative,  when  the  terms  of  president  begin   and  end   st th • 21 -­‐  refined  18  amendment,  sales  of  intoxicating   liquors  is  now  legal   • 22 -­‐  no  person  can  serve  more  than  2  terms  as   President   • 23 -­‐  district  of  Columbia  can  vote  for  President   • 25 -­‐  if  president  gets  sick,  VP  takes  over   th • 27 -­‐  you  can  vote  yourself  a  raise,  but  it  doesn’t  become   effective  until  someone  else  is  elected  to  that  office   ▯ States  cannot  enact  any  law  that  impedes  interstate  commerce   • Questions  at  the  end  of  Chapter  4   o #8-­‐  No  he  did  not  need  a  warrant  because  he  was  in  a  highly  regulated   area  that  could  harm  the  public   o #9-­‐  if  it’s  business  records  or  businesses  at  all  then  there  is  no  5   th amendment  protection   o #11-­‐  Due  process                    


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