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Psychology 103 Chapter 1 notes

by: Alyssa Notetaker

Psychology 103 Chapter 1 notes Psyc 103

Marketplace > College of Charleston > Psychlogy > Psyc 103 > Psychology 103 Chapter 1 notes
Alyssa Notetaker
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These notes cover the first chapter of our book. I hope you guys enjoy!
Intro to psychological science
Dr. Janes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Notetaker on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 103 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Janes in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Intro to psychological science in Psychlogy at College of Charleston.


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Date Created: 01/12/16
Psychology 103 Chapter 1  “Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior” (2). o The mind is private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings; a constant flow of stream of consciousness. o Behavior is the seeable actions of humans and animals.  Psychology uses the scientific method in attempt to answer fundamental questions about the mind and behavior that have been a mystery to people for years.  Subjective experiences arise from our brains through electrical and chemical activities in our brains.  Nativism is the view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn.  Philosophical empiricism is the idea that knowledge is acquired through experience.  Rene Descartes (1596-1650) believed mind and body are two completely different things. o The body is a material substance o The mind is a spiritual substance  Dualism is how mental activity can be reconciled and coordinated with physical behavior. (4).  Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) believed the mind and body weren’t different things. That’s why dualism was an impossible question to answer.  Reaction time is the time it takes to respond to a specific stimulus. (5).  Consciousness is a person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind (5).  Structuralism is the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind. (5).  Introspection is the method that asks people to report on the contents of their subjective experience (5).  Wundt believed consciousness could be broken down into parts.  James believed that consciousness could not be broken down into parts because consciousness was a flowing stream.  James developed the approach of functionalism.  Functionalism is the study of the purpose the mental processes serve. (7).  Darwin created the principle of natural selection. o Natural selection: features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations.  Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) was interested in hysteria o Hysteria is a temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually a result of emotionally upsetting experiences. (8).  Sigmund Freud theorized hysteria was caused by childhood experiences that the patient did not remember. o The memories that caused hysteria were kept in the unconscious part of the brain according to Freud. o This thought caused Freud to come up with the psychoanalytic theory. This theory states: the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, feelings, and actions. o This led to the form of that therapy that is psychoanalysis, which focuses on bringing unconscious material to the conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders. (8).  Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers devolved humanistic psychology. o Humanistic psychology is the approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings. (9).  This focuses on the highest aspirations people have for themselves.  Structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis are different from one another, but they all focus on the workings of the brain (10).  Behaviorism is the idea that psychology should restrict itself to studying objectively observable behavior, and it is different from previous schools of thought. (10).  John Watson created behaviorism because he believed that you can measure what people do instead of what they say. o John Watson came up with stimulus and response.  Stimulus is a sensory input from the environment (11).  Response is a reaction to stimulus (11).  B. F. Skinner expanded on behaviorism o He created the principle of reinforcement which is the consequences of a behavior determine whether it will be more or less likely to occur again (11).  Max Wertheimer studied illusions: errors of perception, memory, or judgement in which subjective experience differs from objective reality. (12).  Wertheimer’s studies led to the creation of Gestalt psychology which is a psychological approach that emphasizes the active role that the mind plays in generating perceptual experience. (13).  Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning. (13).  Behavioral neuroscience is an approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system. (14).  Cognitive neuroscience is the field of study that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity (15).  Evolutionary psychology explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection. (16). o It has its roots from the theory of natural selection. o Evolutionary psychologists believe that the brain is composed of past experiences past generations experienced.  Social psychology is the study of the causes and consequences of sociality (17).  Cultural psychology is the study of cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members. (18). o Cultures applies to nationality and ethnic groups as well as sexual orientation, religion, occupation, and many other groups.


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