Chapter 1 RC notes
Chapter 1 RC notes Comm 215-04
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Notetaker on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm 215-04 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Lacroix in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Comm, Identity and Community in Journalism and Mass Communications at College of Charleston.
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Date Created: 01/12/16
Communications 215 Real Communication Chapter 1 Communication is the process by which individuals use symbols, signs, and behaviors to exchange information. Even though communication is common sense, miscommunication happens all the time. Functional perspective: examines how communication behaviors work (or don’t work) to accomplish our goals in personal, group, organizational, or public situations. All communication “works” (or not) within the process of relationship format. Relationships function to achieve some goal o Our relationships involve interdependence Interdependence means that what we do affects others and what others do affects us. Affiliation is the affect, or feelings, you have for others. o Affiliation can be expressed verbally or nonverbally, face-to-face or through mediated channels. Goal achievement: relying on communication in order to accomplish particular objectives. The ability to influence people is one of the most important functions of communication. o Influence is not always intentional. Control is the ability of a person, group, or organization to influence others, and the in which their relationships are conducted. o Control is finite: the more control one person has in a relationship, the less the other persons have. (9). o Control is an aspect of every relationship o The amount of control varies. It is based on situation and status. Communication is best illustrated by examining it in terms of six characteristics: the extent to which the message is symbolic, the extent to which the code is shared, the degree to which the message is culturally bound, the perceived intentionality of the sender, the presence of a channel, and the degree to which the process of encoding and decoding messages is transactional. (9-10) o Symbols are arbitrary constructions (usually in the form of language of behaviors) that refer to people, things, and concepts. the stronger the connection between symbol and object, the clearer the intended meaning, and vice versa. o Symbolic behaviors are grouped into patterns to create a code. o a code is a set of symbols that are joined to create a meaningful message. For communication to happen the people involved have to share the code used to encode and decode messages. Encoding is the process of of mentally contructing a message for production. Decoding is the process of receiving a message by interpreting the and assigning meaning to it. o culture is the shared beliefs, values, and practices of a group of people. A group’s culture includes the language(or languages) and other symbols used by group members as well as the norms and rules about how behavior can appropriately be displayed and understood. (10). Co-cultures are smaller groups of people within a culture who are distinguished by features. (11). o Nonintentional communication is spontaneous Spontaneous communication is important because people tend to see involuntary messages as honest and reliable because people don’t have to time to censor their actions. Spontaneous communication is often times ambiguous o A channel is simply the method through which communication occurs (11). A channel is needed in order to communicate. o Communication is a transactional process o A transactional process involves two or more people acting in both sender and receiver roles, and their messages are dependent on and influenced by those of their partner(their messages are interdependent) (12). Once a communication transaction has been completed is cannot be reversed or repeated in the same way. To understand communication more fully, you asses the quality, or communicative value, of your communication. (13). Communication is complex because people and situations vary. (13). Competent: to describe communication that is effective and appropriate for a given situation, in which the communicators evaluate and reassess their own communication process. (13). Outcome has to do with the product of an interchange. Competent communication is more concerned with process o Process measures the success of communication by considering the methods y which an outcome is accomplished. o What is said and how it is said is important in communication. Ethics is the study of morals, specifically the moral choices individuals make in their relationships with others. (15). For communication to be competent it has to be effective and appropriate. Communicators who are competent adjust their behavior to comply with the situations they are dealing with. Behavorial flexibity is the ability to have a number of behaviors at your disposal and your willingness to use different communication behaviors in different situations. (17). Communication that is effective in one context is not always effective in another. (19). Having exemplary skills in one area does not make an individual competent overall (19). Communication skills are behavioral routines based on social understandings (19). o They are used by communicators to achieve certain goals. Depending on how you use it, technology can help in being a competent communicator. There are three basic representation of communication: the linear model, the interaction model, and the competent communication model. o A linear model has a sender, message, and reciever The sender originates communication with words or action The words and actions constitute the message. The message must be carried through a specific channel. The receiver is given the message from the channel by the sender. The linear picture of communication is limited(21). There is no information on whether or how the message was received by anyone. Works well with TV and radio Linear model now considered not useful, but the basic terms of the model are important to the building of complex pictures of communication (21). o An interaction model exhibits communication between sender and receiver that incorporates feedback. (21). Feedback is a message from the receiver to the sender that illustrates responses that occur when two or more people communicate. Instant messaging is an example of the interaction model. o Competent communication model is transactional: the individuals (or groups or organizations) communicate simultaneously, sending and receiving messages (both verbal and nonverbal) at the same moment in time, within a relational context, a situational context, and a cultural context. (22) Face-to-face communication behaviors of the communicators influence each individual at the same time. (22) This model takes into account both the transactional nature of communication and the role of communicators. There are four main roles in this theory: communicators, relational context, situational context, and cultural context. Behavior is observable communication including verbal and nonverbal messages (23)
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