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World Hist II- Week 1

by: RachelB

World Hist II- Week 1 Hist 1004

Marketplace > University of Cincinnati > History > Hist 1004 > World Hist II Week 1
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Week 1 notes for HIST1004 overview of what the world was like in the 1500s, reformation, and scientific revolution
World History II- HIST1004
Dr. John McNay
Class Notes
history, World History




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by RachelB on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1004 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. John McNay in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see World History II- HIST1004 in History at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 01/12/16
World Hist. II- HIST1004 Buckel Professor: Dr. John McNay The World in 1500 China  Ming Dynasty (1438-1634)  Leaders in wealth, medicine, power  Invented the compass- therefore great navigators  Treasure Fleets- hundreds of large ocean-going ships for exploration o Sailed to India, Red Sea, and Persian Gulf looking for recognition of wealth o Entirely capable of rounding horn of Africa to discover America  Zheng-he: o Chinese general o Was a eunuch- sexual organs removed when he was born as to avoid relations with palace women  Therefore had lots of power in the palace and with the emperor o Enemies in gov’t convinced officials he was plotting against emperor while absent from palace and was not greeted as expected upon his return to China  No more Chinese exploration after the incident Ottoman Empire  Primarily located in Middle East and later expanded into Europe  Renaissance happened when crusaders discovered forgotten history  Lots of potential for wealth and power if involved in Ottoman Empire Aztec Empire  Rich and Powerful with a very large population o Capital city (Tenochtitlan) was larger than any European city at the time  Spanish were amazed at prosperity and scale o Spanish brought disease that wiped out the vast populations, along with the fighting and brought down the empire Songhai Empire (1400-1600)  Used rivers as trade route and joined the Mediterranean trade  Timbuktu- great city with many libraries and universities o Modern day: looking to preserve these relics Europe  Problems/history/religion: o Lack of political unity- ruler had all power to take money, declare war, etc. o Portugal- location of beginning of social revolution to unify and launch exploration o Germanic invaders toppled Roman Empire  Europe converted to Christianity (Catholicism specifically) by Irish missionaries o Reformation causes wars on religion  30 Years War wiped out 1/3 of Europe’s population because of religion Reformation (Europe) Roots in Renaissance  Renaissance- “rebirth”- retrieved European history from Crusades and discovered pre-Christian roots Roman Catholic Church  Catholicism gave people a way of life  Roman Catholic church was very wealthy and social class was very corrupt o Pushed people to do good = give the church money = get into heaven and avoid purgatory o Essentially told people they could buy their way into heaven in order to gain wealth  Worst thing to happen to someone was to be excommunicated- expelled from the Catholic church and its practices  Printing press was invented- expanded voices and exposed indulgences of church Martin Luther (1483-1546)  Priest, scholar  Complained about the sale of indulgences and his word is carried far on paper due to the printing press  Complained about other priests teaching the bible (which was written only in Latin) but could not read Latin o Claimed these acts were corrupt  Germany was ruled by Italy (church was centered/based in Rome) and supported Martin Luther because they wanted away from the power of the Catholic church o The church had the power to choose rulers and military leaders and Germany wanted their own jurisdiction Roman Catholic Church (cont.)  German peasant revolt occurred due to lack of faith in the rich (church representatives/leaders)  Martin Luther supported the gov’t, however, because he wanted to reform the church, not leave it o Lutheran Church created  Luther believed that what you did in life didn’t matter, only God can save you  Bible was eventually translated into German John Calvin (1509-1564)  Believed the only important thing in life was God’s choice and thinking you had an impact on your own fate was foolish  Believed in predestination- god knows your past, present, and future and has already decided your fate o People believed they were “chosen” by god to be saved and took power  They were rude and intolerant, contradicting the fact that they were “chosen”, so why would they need to quarrel with people if it didn’t make an impact on their fate? Henry VIII (1491-1547)  Married Spanish princess, niece of Spanish Emperor o To carry the throne in England, one would need a male heir  He has no sons and wanted his marriage to the princess annulled o Spanish emperor (who had more power than the pope) denied the request  Henry VIII creates his own church- Church of England (Anglican)  Catholic church follows tradition and scripture- Church of England added reason Counter-Reformation  Jesuits- “pope’s men”- hammered down the Catholic way of life o They had the money and the people to do missionary work o Spanish Inquisition present  Triggers 30-year war (1618-1648)  Mateo Ricci- Emperor trusted him and made a treaty with Russia o Treaty of Westphalia (1648)- powers in Europe agreed to never fight about religion again (Ex. Catholics vs Protestants) Scientific Revolution Overview  People discovered different ways to understand religion because of different interpretations of Bible o if the bible didn’t have all the answers, what else could they discover Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543)  discovered celestial motion- the stars move  proposed that we have a heliocentric universe- Earth must be at the center of creation  He used math/calculations to discover these, not just observations of others (that he’d proven wrong) Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)  Defended heliocentrism  Used telescope and observational data for research  Discovered the topography of the moon, phases of Venus, satellites of Jupiter, and sun spots  Determined laws of motion and energy  Argued for experimentation to demonstrate conclusions  Was formerly respected by church but publicly called out the church’s “designated astronomer” for his wrong ideas and observations  Was jailed and almost put to death but recant his ideas in order to be released o He continued (but didn’t publish) his further research Francis Bacon (1561-1626)  Focused on studying the simplicity of nature  Believed scientific progress is a matter of finding correct methods to study o Scientific method was a matter of trial and error  Baconian Method- gather evidence, test it, deduct conclusions


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