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Module 1: Need to know terms & concepts

by: GiovanaG

Module 1: Need to know terms & concepts ARCH1720

Marketplace > University of Florida > Art > ARCH1720 > Module 1 Need to know terms concepts
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About this Document

These notes cover the first lecture and readings, and include all the need to know terms and concepts for Module 01.
Phyllis J. Henderson
Class Notes
#psychology #psych #PSY2012




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by GiovanaG on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH1720 at University of Florida taught by Phyllis J. Henderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see ARCH1720 in Art at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 01/12/16
PSY2012 - Week 1 Pages 1-38 Terms & Main Concepts - Psychology: the study of the mind, brain and behavior - Levels of Analysis: lower levels (considered the brain) higher levels (considered the mind) • biological influences: social and cultural influences: - Multiply Determined: cause by many factors (all behaviors) - Individual Differences: difference in thinking, emotion, personality, and behavior that _______makes everyone different • Psychological influence don’t depend on each other, making many factors apply to one behavior • People influence one another • Behaviors change with culture - Naive Realism: belief that we see the world exactly how it is - Scientific Theory: one explanation for many findings • misconception #1- a theory explains one specific event • misconception #2- a theory is an educated guess • Hypothesis: a testable prediction • Scientific method: used to overcome Confirmation Bias - Confirmation Bias: tendency to to seek evidence that supports our beliefs and deny _______or distort evidence that contradicts them • also applies to everyday life- friendship, romance, and politics - Belief Perseverance: sticking to our beliefs even if evidence contradicts them - Metaphysical Claims: claims of the world that can be testes (God, souls, etc…) - Pseudoscience: set of claims that seems but aren't scientific / science imposter • Warning signs of pseudoscience: 1. Ad Hoc Immunizing Hypothesis: loophole that protects a theory from being disproven 2. Lack of self-correction: rarely updated with new data over years 3. Over reliance on anecdotes: too much use of second hand evidence - Patternicity: tendency to see patterns in meaningless data • if we eat a burger and the next day we get sick we’ll tend to avoid burgers for a while • conspiracies • we tend to believe in patternicity and pseudoscience because we want to believe - Terror Management Theory: the awareness of our inevitable death leaves us with _______underlying fear Logical Fallacies: traps in thinking that can lead to mistaken conclusions - Emotional Reasoning Fallacy: the error of only using our emotions to decide on a _______claim Ex: “The idea that day care might have negative effects on children upsets me, so I refuse to believe it” - Bandwagon Fallacy: assuming a claim is correct just because many people believe it Ex: “ A lot of people believe in the Big Bang Theory, so I believe in it too” - Not Me Fallacy: believing we’re immune from errors in thinking Ex: “ This book says the scientific method is important to avoid biases, but these biases don’t apply to me” - Correlation - Causation Fallacy: assuming that if two things are associated, one _______causes the other • Bias Blind Spot: when we’re unaware of bias within ourselves, but notice it within _______others Dangers of Pseudoscience - Loss of Opportunity: false believed claims can keep the real claims from being _______implemented - Direct Harm: performing something that may cause harm to someone for the believe _______that it may be true - Inability to Think Scientifically as Citizens - Scientific Skepticism: greek word skeptikos meaning ‘to consider carefully’ evaluating _______all claims with an open mind • To Be a Scientific Skeptic… 1. have a willingness to keep an open mind too all claims 2. willingness to accept claims after they’ve been subjected to scientific tests - Critical Thinking: evaluating all claims (in everyday life) with an open mind Scientific Thinking Principle #1: Ruling Out Rival Hypothesis - When we evaluate a claim, we should make sure we’ve excluded other possible explanations for it Scientific Thinking Principle #2: Correlation Isn’t Causation - A correlation between two things doesn’t demonstrate a causal connection between them (Correlation- Causation Fallacy) Scientific Thinking Principle #3: Falsifiability - Falsifiable: for a claim to be meaningful, it must have the possibility of being proved _______wrong Scientific Thinking Principle #4: Replicability - Replicability: study’s findings can be duplicated consistently • if they can’t be duplicated, its more likely the findings were due to chance Scientific Thinking Principle #5: Extraordinary Claims Need Extraordinary Evidence - Big claims need a lot of evidence to back them up Scientific Thinking Principle #6: Occam’s Razor - If two explanations account equally for a claim, use the simplest one - Variable: anything that can vary - Introspection: reflecting on our mental experiences Psychology’s Early History - Structuralism: aimed to identify the basic elements of psychological experience • Founded by Edward Bradford Titchener - Functionalism: aimed to understand the adaptive aspects of psychology (thoughts, _______feelings, and behaviors) • Founded by William James • Influenced by Darwin’s Natural Selection Theory: physical and behavioral _______characteristics evolved to increase chances for survival - Behaviorism ‘black box psychology’: aimed to uncovering general principles (things we’re fully aware of) • Founded by John B. Watson - Cognitivism: said that thinking affected our behavior • Led by Ulric Neisser • Cognitive Neuroscience: relationship between brain functioning and thinking - Psychoanalysis: focused on psychological processes we’re unaware of (impulses, _______thoughts, and memories) sharp contrast to behaviorism Founded by Sigmund Freud • • Everything we do/say derives from an unconscious place - Evolutionary Psychology: assumption that human psychological systems (memory, _______emotion, personality) are adaptive functions - Basic Research: examines how the mind works - Applied Research: examines how we can use basic research to solve real world _______problems


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