Infancy Chapter 1
Infancy Chapter 1 Psyc3260
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc3260 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Bourgeois in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Infancy in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 01/12/16
Infancy 01/16/2016 ▯ Chapter1: Historical and contemporary Perspective on infant development The preverbal infancy experience is uniquely human o Complete reliance on someone else Recreating infant-like experiences can be therapeutic Many diseases have their origins in the prenatal/ infancy periods o The brain is highly vulnerable to disease, malnutrition, parental stress, and toxins US is one of the few industrialized countries that does not have national standards for day care pviders ▯ A brief History Greek/Romans (200B.C- 30 A.D) o Advocated harsh upbringing o Would shape infants heads and bodies o Saw their acts as signs of love o Strong devotion between parent and children o Believed exercise of the body lead to strong moral character o Practices infanticide Non western ancient practices also used to shape infants bodies o China- foot binding o Maya- head binding Biblical- Israelites (200 B.C- 500 B.C) o Importance of infants o Stresses education Middle ages (300 A.D- 1200 A.D) o Christian church stressed value of children o Church run orphanages emerged Renaissance (1450A.D- 1650 A.D) o Written philosophies of child rearing Enlightenment o Romanticism (Rousseau) Children= naturally good Focused on natural abilities of children o Empiricism (LOCKE) Children need guideline o Domesticity became valued—emergence of the nuclear family As people began to believe in the importance of the infancy period scientific interest in Infancy emerged o Darwin Never studied infants Shaped the ways we view infancy Attachment Critical periods (maximum susceptibility) Imprinting (preferences for particular people) Nature vs. Nurture argument emerged to replace romanticism vs. empiricism o Gessel—Nature Used one-way mirror to study infants Focused on average child o Pavlov- nurture Conditioning (classical) Making associations o Skinner – Nurture Conditioning (operant) Response contingent Reinforcers *General consensus that it is not Nature or Nurture but a combination of the two Freud o Focused on Psychological experience o Too much emphasis on parents effect on children o Didn’t acknowledge the reciprocal nature or child caregiver interaction ▯ Systems Theories Piaget o Constructivism Integration of nature and nurture Co-construction—active learning Assimilation and accommodation Use prior knowledge/ experiences to make sense of new info—schemas Didn’t account for the adults effect on child 0-2 years label the sensorimotor stage 6 sub-stages 0-2 months o Reflect shemes Inborn reflexes such as sucking looking and crying establish the infants first connection to the world 2-5 months o Primary circular reactions Repeated actions (circular) that involve connections within the infants own body (primary (such as cooing and coordinating arm movements with the mouth to suck on the thumb, initially discovered by chance 6-9 months o Secondary circular reactions Repeated actions that involve the infant and the environment (kicking the crib to make the mobile move or smiling to get a smile back) initially discovered by chance 10-12 months o Coordination of secondary circular reactions First sign of goal-oriented behavior. Combining different repeated reactions to achieve a goal 12-18 months o Tertiary circular reactions Using secondary circular reactions to make new things happen 18-24 months o Invention of new means through mental combinations The ability to think before acting. Can solve problems without trial and error Bio-ecological model (Bronfenbrenner) o Feedback loop—all interconnected o Micro- relationship between infant and immediate environment o Meso- interaction between settings o Exo- systems that indirectly effect the child o Macro- beliefs, and values of culture as a whole Methods Quantitative o Experimental Random assignment Independent variable, dependent variable o Observational Longitudinal Same group over time Cross sectional Different group for each age of interest Qualitative o Focus on meaning ▯ Must follow all ethical guideline o Informed consent from parents Decrease bias with attention to Reliability, validity, representativeness, personal bias ▯ ▯
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