Diversity of Animals 1: Introduction to Animals and the Animal Body Plan
Diversity of Animals 1: Introduction to Animals and the Animal Body Plan ECOL 182R
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camille Hizon on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ECOL 182R at University of Arizona taught by Bonine, Hunter, Martinez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Science at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 01/12/16
Diversity of Animals 1: Introduction to Animals and the Animal Body Plan I. Evolution of the Animal Body Plan A. What features together define all animals? 1. Multicellularity, diploidy, eukaryotic cells, heterotrophy a) In what group do animallike singlecelled creatures belong Protists b) Are all protists unicellulNo c) What else is common to all animals? 2. Extracellular matrix (ECM) a) extra (outside) cellular (cells) matrix (substance within which something originates, develops, or is contained) b) made up of proteins and glycoproteins c) give animal cells and animals structure d) hard stuff in bond, cartilage, forms soft barriers and filters around cells, e.g. gut linings 3. Move under their own power sometime in their life cycle 4. All but sponges have muscle cells that can change the shape of the body by contracting 5. What other traits do you associate with animals? a) Why do they have them? b) Do all animals have them? 6. Lophotrochozoans grow incrementally by adding to their skeletal elements 7. Ecdysozoans a group within the animal kingdom that includes the arthropods and the nematodes; a) mouth develops from the first opening to develop in the embryo. b) Also bilaterally symmetrical 8. Deuterostomes comprised of echinoderms and chordates a) humans are deuterostomes b) bilaterally symmetrical (echinoderms like starfish are not bilaterally symmetrical in adult state but begin as bilaterally symmetrical embryos) 9. First steps in evolution of animal body plan The Porifera (sponges) 10. Porifera body plan (sponges) a) Tube organization b) cells in ECM like fruit in Jello c) Choanocytes Cells that move water and absorb food d) The choanocytes regulate H2O movement with flagellum; collect food particles at flagellum base, absorb directly into the cell. e) Intracellular digesti digest fooithiindividual cells; cannot eat more than a single cell. B. Biology of the Porifera and Cnidaria 1. Reproduce asexually branches may pinch off and regenerate 2. Or sexually most arehermaphrodites single individual produces both male and female gametes. 3. Sperm are produced from modified choanocytes a nd released into the environment 4. Choanocytes of other sponges capture sperm in intracellular capsules, then transform into migrating amoeboid cells, carry sperm to an egg 5. Zygote gives rise to a swimming larvawith choanocytes on outside for movement 6. Larva eventually settles, gives rise to mature sponge 7. Cells from a sponge can be completely dissociated, strained through a filter… 8. And they will reform into a sponge again in a few weeks 9. What does this mean about the way they are organized? 10. If a tissue is a group of similar cells organized into a functional unit, do sponges have tissues? a) Sponges have a cellular organization C. Porifera are asymmetrical 1. Tubes grow into other tubes can’t bisect them and make two equal halves. D. Experiments in symmetry: The Cnidaria 1. Two cell layers; tentacles around mouth that closes 2. Is it symmetrical? a) Yes! 3. Evolution of symmetry a) asymmetrical, radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry 4. Radial Symmetry a) A planethrough the center in any direction will bi the organism in equal halves 5. Bilateral symmetry only ingle planwill bisect the organism into equal halves. a) Only a single plane will bisect the organism into equal halves. 6. Advantages of bilateral symmetry a) a front and back as well as a top and a bottom one end is a head. ephalization trend towards having a head. (1) Allows concentration of sensory apparatus on one side (front) of one end (top!) (2) In most organisms, associated with a central nervous system (and a brain) b) Why is this a good thing for mobile animals? E. The Innovations of the Cnidaria 1. Cells work together in layeissue organization 2. If we dissociated the cells of a cnidarian and left them in a tank? a) Dissociation causes death 3. Digestion in cavity (extracellular digest what does this mean about the size of food cnidarians can consume? a) size of food can be bigger than itself! 4. Do cnidarians have a gut? Where do their waste product go? a) Waste products go out the same opening; mouth but no anus 5. What are the problems with this? a) No more food until you dispose of waste 6. The Ctenophora the comb jellies a) superficially like cnidarians b) sticky tentacles (on some) capture prey 7. One way digestion! mouth AND an anus F. Cnidaria and Ctenophora 1. Review: a) radial symmetry symmetry b) extracellular digestion c) cnidaria have mouth only, ctenophora have mouth and anus d) and neither haveoelom 2. Evolution of the coelom a) What’s the coelom? (1) body cavity b) Is it the same thing as a gut? (1) No c) Where is the coelom in humans? (1) Thorax + abdomen 3. Evolution of the body cavity coelom a) Inhumans divided into two thoracic and abdominal cavities b) Inarthworms, coelom in each segment 4. We will distinguish between 2 types of animals a) Acoelomate .g. sponges, cnidaria, flatworms b) Coelomate .g. some protostomes and all deuterostomes. Mesoderm surrounds cavity (coelom) and gut. 5. Why was evolution of a coelom important in animal evolution? a) Coelom can function asimple circulatory system. b) Fluid in a body cavity can help make the body rigid a hydrostatic skeleton. c) Organs can function without being deformed by surrounding muscles (1) Allows the development of a longer, coiled, gut 6. Groups can be distinguished by embryonic development. 7. Inprotostomes the blastopore gives rise to the mouth. 8. Indeuterostomes blastopore gives rise nus a
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