New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BIO 1011; Week 2 notes

by: Addison Guskey

BIO 1011; Week 2 notes 1952

Marketplace > University of Denver > Math > 1952 > BIO 1011 Week 2 notes
Addison Guskey
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Calculus II

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Calculus II notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes cover week 2 material!
Calculus II
Maksym Pryporov
Class Notes
Biology, university of denver bio 1011, Cell, intro to bio, AP bio, Carbohydrates, protein, Lipids, plasma membrane, Macromolecules, amino acids, DNA, RNA




Popular in Calculus II

Popular in Math

This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Addison Guskey on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1952 at University of Denver taught by Maksym Pryporov in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Calculus II in Math at University of Denver.


Reviews for BIO 1011; Week 2 notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/12/16
1.13.16 (Week 2, #1) • coding region: structural gene • Introns: non coding regions (intervening sequence) • transcription: non coding regions can be removed • exons: linear sequence of DNA (coding region) TRANSCRIPTION: using a DNA template to make a complementary RNA > complementary; 2 strains (pre-mRNA; codes for polypeptides) • DNA Template 3’ to 5’ strand product of transcription: primary transcript (contains introns) oxiribose nucleotide to build DNA • Processing - removing any non-coding ____(Introns) - mRNA shorter bc spliced out the introns How long does transcription take? > depending on the length of a coding region (normally 15min) > in nucleus, split of seconds -mRNA encounters a Ribosome TRANSLATION: • ribosome reads mRNA from 5’ end to 3’end - How does ribosome move? >mRNA: train track, ribosome moves down the track • Ribosome “sets the reading frame” > @ some point along the scanning process, it recognizes that every three bases has info, then sets the reading frame. • to build a polypeptide, tRNA delivers appropriate amino acids to the ribosome End result: Build a Polypeptide mRNA : only makes polypeptide (mature product made in the nucleus) GENETIC CODE • DNA (codes info) has a 4 letter alphabet : A T C G (make up the dioxin ribose nucleotide) • At a gene that codes for a protein, you create 3-letter words: Amino Acid (polypep coding gene) Ex) - TTT is the word for the amino acid Lysine - TAC is the word for the amino acid Methionine or START (start translation) - ATT is the word for STOP (stop translation) must transcribe to make mRNA then translate the mRNA to get the gene • • even when u have the same gene detected in the same org, the codes are diff bc all genes change over time (similar nucleotide seq= common ancestor) • In a gene an info coding region is called an EXON Ex) 3’ -TACTTTACGATT -5’ Transcribe: 5’ -AUGAAAUGCUAA -3’ Translate: 5’ -AUG AAA UGA UAA - 3’ [start, methionine][Lysine] [Cysteine] [Stop] > every three bases in mRNA: codon 4^3= 64 combinations - provides a site where guanine can translate nucleic acids:Phosphodiaster bond TATA box (RNA polymerase ) t i s n a c U • enzyme will take a modified form of • 100-300 adenine nucleotide guanine nucleotide -added on to the mRNA enzyme covalently links to the 5’ end > bc mRNA in the cytoplasm can be broken • • All mRNA has a GTP cap at the 5’ end down by enzymes. • The cap- Signal the ribosome is looking for • unstable; breaks down quickly has no introns; doesn’t need to splice • • protein binds to the regulatory region allow enzyme to • 3 to 5 to be a template Post transcriptional processing of ends - Ways to protect RNA ; to have proteins around. - RNA can live for days, weeks, if they are in a protective state -Each tRNA carries one type of amino acid -each tRAN has 3 base anticodon seq >anticodon: complimentary to codon • ribosome cans mRNA starting at the 5’ end • finds the first AUG codon (START codon, and codes for amino acid Methionine) - Untranslated region- much longer and contains info for interaction wit the ribosome • after the first AUG, now that you have set the reading frame, every three letters is a codon • now the appropriate tRNA can make contact with the mRNA 2 tRNAS being protected by the large subunit NEED RIBOSOME bc of the protective effect of the ribosome, • ribosome reads one codons at a time • Initiation Peptide Transferase :enzyme in the late sub unit, forms a peptide bond separation from its amino acid, changes the shape of the tRNA -elongation of polypeptide >nascent polypeptide (newly born protein) gets longer and longer as you move down the mRNA : translocation (ribosome reading one codon at a time) Termination: when the ribosome is done, releases nascent poly -then release empty tRNA -then ribosome lets go of the message WHAT FACTOR DICTATES THE WAY CELLS FUNCTION? : the 2nd law of thermo - all matter seeks disorder - a cell represents order How does a cell circumvent the 2nd law? - expend Energy - metabolism: complex seq of enzyme creation where you breakdown organic molecules to release Energy - Anaerobic metabolism: in the absence of O2 = form of metabolism that does not require O - aerobic metabolism: metabolism in the presence of O = requires O in order to work A cell must… - obtain organic building blocks • sugars • amino acids • fatty acids • nucleotides -To build polymers (macromolecules) • - Need a process for taking in organic building blocks > need special transporters into your cell if you are consuming this from your diet Additional Cell Functions EXPORT - ability to release substances from the cell SENSATION - a cell must be able to detect and respond to stimuli > can taste its env CYTOSKELETON - internal protein complexes that are involved in movement and support Some cells are… • heterotrophic - take in glucose made by some other organism for metabolism (humans) • autotrophic - use light to convert Water + CO2 -> Glucose > Photosynthetic autotrophs • Glucose is the universal organic E source for all life forms - wether you are human or bacteria - All cell types utilize the same macromolecule types - All cell types have a plasma men > use same phospholipid - All cell types share share a common pathway for storing and retrieving info (DNA/RNA & transcription and translation - Since the cell is the fundamental unit of ever life form on the planet, - ALL life forms on this planet must have a common origin. Using our definition of a cell as the minimal definition for a life form, all life forms on this planet can be separated into two groups based on the organization of their cells. PROKARYOTES: cells that lack membrane bound sub compartments - diameter: 1-10 micro m - plasma membrane: phospholipid bilayer/ protein complex - CYTOPLASM: contains ions, small org molecules - Replication with modification: DNA - only single DNA duplex in the cell - bends, and ends come together and makes a circle; no histones, approx 3K genes - NDA located in the cytoplasm (necleoid) - The DNA can be transcribed. bene expression occur in the cytoplasm - Translation occurs in the cytoplasm by ribosomes - Ribosomes (protein/ RNA complexes) - small (not as big as ribosomes in our cytoplasm) - transcription happens in the nucleus but not translation EUKARYOTES: cell has membrane bound sub compartments […CONT’D] PROKARYOTES : cells that lack sub-compartments Metabolism: many anaerobic forms (glycolysis); reactions occur in the cytoplasm • Glucose -> 2 pyruvates ; release energy • 4 ADP + 4P -> 4ATP (gross yield of 4 ATP bc do it 4 times) • Most prokaryotes only perform this process Ex) of a coupled reaction: coupling the breakdown of glucose to the formation of ATP -the free energy from the first part is used in ATP -> Fundamental property of cell in life form: coupled reaction • Some aerobic forms: ability to perform metabolism in the presence of oxygen (can detoxify oxygen) - There ARE aerobic prokaryotes • Many pro are heterotrophs. • Endocytosis: pros cant do endocytosis • No formation of endocytotic vesicle • Uptake of organic building blocks (yes) o Small organic molecules (like glucose) and ions cross the plasma membrane via protein channels (needs a channel for each; amino acid, nucleotides…) • Exocytosis: vesicle in the cytoplasm that [uptake of organic building blocks] usually carries proteins that wants to send out to the environment. (no pro) [no secretory vesicles] • Proteins are released through channels on the plasma membrane (Export) - (need to open up the DNA to do transcription, primary transcript can be translated by a ribosome) thread the protein through the translocan, then when it’s out it assumes its 3D position, then does work • EXTRACELLULAR DIGESTION: breaks down the macromolecule -> Bacteria in your body: help produce vitamins, facilitate digestion, as you process material in the GI track, they help you recover water so that you don’t lose a lot of water =A symbiotic relationship: bacteria benefits from you, and you benefit from them • Sensation - Chemoreceptors on plasma membrane • Movement - Usually drift; some use “flagellum” (whip-like structure; used to propel the bacterium to an aqueous environment) - Most prokaryotes can’t control their movement, and flows along • Support: some forms have cell wall - Composed of protein/ the cell wall, imitating the shape of the cell wall - Gives bacteria a degree of shape - Grand negative, positive; type of carb on their cell wall; used to identifying certain bacteria • Autotrophic Capability: some photosynthetic bacteria • CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS - In to domains o Domain Bacteria o Domain Archaea - Fits model for a prokaryote [All members of the kingdom are single-celled] EUKARYOTES : cells that have sub-compartments Size: 10-100 micrometers (pretty big) • plasma membrane: phospholipid bilayer/ protein complex; same organizational plan as prokaryotes • cytoplasm: YES replication with modification: DNA • - rod shaped DNA/Protein complex (chromosome) - histones present; approx.. 35000 genes - Chromosomes located in the nucleus ; transcription occurs in the nucleus - the membrane: a double membrane - circular DNA found in the mitochondrion ; inside the mitochondrion, you can find circular DNA = no histones > Circular DNA found in chloroplast (autotrophs only) TRANSLATION > mRNA made in Nucleus & translated in the cytoplasm by “LARGE” ribosomes > mRMA made in the mitochondrion by “small” ribosomes ; Circular DNA in the mitochondrion are ribosomal RNA = can build their own ribosomes in chloroplast and mitochondria Other types of gene for translation : transfer RNAs Multiple cites in a DNA for Eukaryotes: different sites for performing translation and • translocation -mRNA can’t be translated to the nucleus Metabolism: anaerobic and aerobic Only anaerobic is the cells that are involved in metabolism -Anaerobic (glycolysis); reactions occur in the cytoplasm -glucose -> 2 pyruvates ; release energy -4 ADP + 4P -> 4 ATP (gross yield) actual net yield = 2 ATP -Aerobic metabolism occurs in the mitochondrion > 2 pyruvates -> 6 CO2 ; net production of 34 ATP (theoretically) (30-32; not as efficient) Endoplasmic reticulum: membrane bound network that is continuous with the Nuclear Envelope; site of protein synthesis and lipid synthesis • Spots in the ER: refer to rough ER > ribosomes on the surface; site of protein synthesis ;Refers to a zone that is closest to the nucleus • smooth ER: site of lipid synthesis; furthest from the nucleus with no ribosome (where you build phospholipids & all hormones) > the phospholipids makes up the new plasma membrane • Golgi (green in board pic): collection of membrane bound bags > first part of golgi: CIS gogi, bags in the middle= medial golgi, bags at the end = Trans : a packaging center > when you reach trans, usually goes to plasma memb, or an endosome Endocytosis :formation of endocytotic vesicle at the plasma membrane > detected by the plasma membrane and tRNA - Intracellular digestion - endocytotic vesicles fuse with the endosome • proteases: break peptide bonds • glycodase: break glycosidic bonds lipase: break ester bonds of complex lipids • • nucleases: break phosphodiester bond - Env affects 3D structure; 3D structure dictates function. ; must change the env - > When intracellular digestion os completed, it goes back to being an endosome (Pump: moving against the concentration gradient) Exocytosis Inside a secretory vesicle: usually protein Regulated: keep in the cytoplasm until needed Fibrolast : makes protein called callogen Mitochondrion - outer membrane - inner membrane is folded • to increase the surface area • to create structure to create cristae; - matrix (fluid filled cavity (blue) where u find DNA, ribosomes - site of aerobic metabolism Chloroplast • outer membrane(not a barrier to movement) • inner membrane (selective of what goes in and out) • stroma (space inside the chloro; like cytoplasm) • grana (stacks of thylakoids) , thylakoid Photosynthesis (light reaction; in • membrane in the thylakoid, dark reaction; in stroma where the enzymes are located) happens in chloroplast • sensation: YES > receptors on plasma membrane • Movement > cilia or flagellum(propels cell thru a media, or may have multiple whip-like structures = cilia) > cytoskeletal proteins; creates shapes and support > cell wall: protein/ carbohydrate complex (diff than cell wall in bact. ) • Autotrophic Capability: photosynthetic Classification -Domain: Eukarya o Kingdon Protista ; all single-celled (hetero and autotrophs) o Kingdom Fungi; most multicellular; ALL heterotrophs - Yeast: single-celled; o Kingdom Animalia; Multicellular & ALL heterotrophs o Kingdom Plantae; all photosynthetic autotrophs, multicellular PROKARYOTES EUKARYOTES NO sub-compartments have membrane bound sub-compartments anaerobic dependent on aerobic metabolism never has evolved multi cellularity true cytoskeletal components single-celled multi cellular - plasma membrane that is built on the same design - DNA; built on the same design & perform transcription and translation in similar ways - ribosomes ( EU-larger, PRO- smaller ) - Perform glycolysis (same 10 steps) - Photosynthesis - evolved from a common ancestor


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.