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Chapter 3 Acoustics

by: Joey Ross

Chapter 3 Acoustics CDO 331

Joey Ross

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About this Document

Thes notes cover what was discussed and class and notes on Acoustics
Introduction to Audiology
Nicole M Ferguson
Class Notes
audiology, Acoustics
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joey Ross on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDO 331 at Central Michigan University taught by Nicole M Ferguson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Audiology in Child Development at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 01/12/16
Highlighted is documented/slide notes Regular Text is addition lecture notes DAY 3 – Acoustics Began Class with Socrative Question What are you taking this class for? a. Audiology b. Speech-Pathology c. Other Make sure to read!!! Reading should not deter you from this subject it is jut tough! What is sound?  Sound is a vibration or caused by a vibration  A type of energy that’s a result of pressure waves admitting from a force applied to some sound source o Kinetic Energy o A wave (Sound Wave)  Moving one side to the other Properties of Sound Sound can be defined by Physical OR Psychological Something we can measure Frequency Psych :Pitch Subjected proffesion of highness of sound Complete Amplitude  Vibratory movement of a mass from its position of rest to the point furthest from position of rest  How far does the sound wave move? The start to maximum o Psych : Loudness Phase Relationship in time between two or more waves Psych :Quality Sharpness/Dull/ Muffled/Clear Socrative question: If a tree fell in the woods and no one was around to hear it, according to physical properties of sound, it would indeed make a sound. If a tree fell in the woods and no one was around to hear it, according to physical properties of sound, it would indeed make a sound. T OR F TRUE Physical Properties of Sound Requirements for Sound  Source of vibration  Energy must create a disturbance in a medium that has mass & elasticity  The disturbance (sound waves) moves away from the sound source SUMMARY: SOUMETHING NEEDS TO START THE VIBRATIONS Tuning Fork : Combined together is pressure Less dense area is rarefractions Sine Wave – Cycle of vibration Sound through a medium Energy has to move through a medium Humidity and temperature can change how fast or dense it will move through the air Fastest moving through a solid state Its more stiff Video Less air = Less sound We learned that sound cannot travel without air It must have a medium to pass through in order for it to be heard Socrative Question: The speed of sound is only affected by the temperature of the air. T OR F FALSE : Air is also affected by humidity of Air Types of Waves Transverse The motion of the molecules is perpendicular to the direction of the waves Example: Throwing a pebble in the water Waves move outwards Longitudinal Example: Wheat in wind All moving in the same direction Sine (Sinusoidle Wave) The waveform of a single frequency tone moves with simple harmonic motion Additional Reading Material: **Period is starting and ending in the exact same point Amount of time to complete one cycle Properties of Sine Waves A Reciprocal relationship exists between period and frequency Period = 1/frequency Examples: What is the period of 1000 Hz pure tone? Socrative Question: If a sine wave has a frequency of 50 Hz, what is the PERIOD of that sound? a. 20 sec b. 2 sec c. .2 sec d. .02 sec D Socrative Question: What is the period of 10 Hz? a. 10 sec b. 1 sec c. .1 sec d. .01 sec C Hertz (Hz) Number of cycles per second (Or frequency) Example: 1 cycle per second = 1 Hz 100 cycle per second = 100 Hz Sine Waves – Frequency Changes in the rate of air molecule movement Number of cycles completed within one second Fewer amounts of cycles; the lower the frequency Speech is between 250 and 8,000 cycles (Hz) per second Higher frequencies have a shorter period Lower frequencies have loner periods Takes longer for low freq then high freq to be completed Wavelength/ Velocity (Time) = Frequency Socrative Question: If a sine wave has 600 cycles in 2 seconds, what is the FREQUENCY of this sound? a. 600 Hz b. 300 Hz c. 200 Hz d. 100 Hz B. 300 Hz Socrative Question: If a sine wave has 600 cycles in 1 second, what is the FREQUENCY of this sound? a. 600 Hz b. 300 Hz c. 200 Hz d. 100 Hz A. 600 Hz 20 -20,000 Hz Range of Human Hearing Amplitude Distance a mass moves (or is displaced) from its resting point Intensity Decibel is a relative reference. Meaning we are saying how much more intense one thing is to another Peak Amp Refers to max displacement that a sine wave achieves in one period Intensity Distance a molecule moves Amplitude and Intensity are interchangeable Loudness is our PERCEPTION of intensity Sine Waves – Intensity The range for sound is very large Just audible sound = 20 microPascals Painful sound = 200,000,000 microPascals What can we do to reduce this range? Phase Stage of the cycle at a given point in time Look at it as completing a full circle 0-90-180-360 Socrative Question: The definition of amplitude is the loudness of sound. T OR F T Socrative Question: What is the starting phase of the waveform on the screen (in class)? a.0 b.90 c. 180 d.270 b. 90 In Phase: Amplitude and Frequency are the same at starting phase Out of Phase: Different Starting phase 180Degrees out of phase will cancel each other Example: Cars have a phase that will be 180 to road noise Passive System: Active System:


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