Env. St. 188
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Date Created: 02/12/14
Env 188 Midterm Study Guide 21114 636 PM To get a full summary of Aldo Leopold39s A Sand County Almanac access it at bookragscom username ethomas91mecom password password1 TEST PROMPT One Essay on o A The influences on Leopold himself 0 B The influences on Leopold39s Land Ethic o Also other notes have described that we should look at eopod s Land ethic and it39s biocentric and anthropocentric elements and their origins so it39s important to understand these centrics concepts in particular MUST or should for an A cover the following majors points 0 1 Muir his influences and views 0 2 Marsh his influences and views 0 3Gods and Religions of the Ancients o 4 Lifestyles and contradictions of those societies especially romans o 5 Revivals of Greco Roman Naturalism o 6 Native American and Eastern Philosophies o 7 Herding and agricultural cultures religion codes practices 0 8 Monotheistic cultures and the middle ages 0 9 Revivals of Greco Roman Science and Philosophy 1 Muir influences views Muir had taken the romanticism of the era and said that it is an enormous conceit to believe the earth is just for us and our use Muir believed the human race was arrogant He highlights 4 major things very influential in his childhood 0 1 his father was very crue beat him and his brother o 2 his dad was also a religious fanatic only believed biblical things were worth reading 0 3 the extremely hard work of making a farm out of the wilderness o 4 he grew up essentially in a wilderness he makes the connection between wilderness and god he believed wilderness represented the holiness in the world his father39s religion was on the otherhand very anthropocentric but regardless that39s the way john perceived things Left in 1865 to go to the university of Wisconsin Never returned but his experiences would never leave him Untouched wilderness nearby Muirs farm Unlike dunbar there had never been settlement around the Muir farm John Muir remembered much about his childhood experiences Muir was quite susceptible to transcendentalist thought Biocentric environmental ethics o Muir put god where the gods had been for the ancients for the greeks o Says humans are just another animal we have a niche here on the planet but we should learn our place and be a humble creature o Muir said nature has the right to exist it has rights just like anything else and just like the human race 2 Marsh 18011882 influences view Influences 0 When he was abroad in Turkey and Italy where he was the foreign minister he studied much of ancient cultures and the reasons for their decline Was very interested in the fall of rome Mesopotamia 2 Env reasons for their collapse lead Marsh to parallel Rome with the United States Leopold said that by destroying the biodiversity of the Earth we are risking destroying our whole way of life and the whole planet started college at the age of fifteen Served as Vermont representative in Congress for 20 years Was the fisheries manager for the state of Vermont Foreign minister for Turkey and Italy at separate times When he was traveling that39s when he did the research for the historical portions of man and nature 0 Influenced his vies If we don39t practice stewardship and watch what we are doing then bad things will happen 0 Marsh thought maybe make life on earth uninhabitable We don39t practice stewardship for just our moral reasons if we don39t do it we face global collapse Man and Nature 1864 o The most important and influential book on environmental awareness in the 1800s 0 Published a second time under the title Earth As modified by Human action 0 Uses the fall of the Roman Empire as a blueprint for the possible future of the US 0 Theme is that human beings can alter the environment not always in positive ways 0 Talked about deforestation contaminated water as reasons that the roman empire fell and said that the same thing could happen to us 3 Gods and religions of the ancients Egyptians 0 Nature amp animal worship eg Cats sphinx etc o Influenced Greeks Greeks 0 Very much about nature worship 0 More connected with nature and the land than Romans Makes sense geographically they lived on rocky hilly lands and islands 2 Very little arable land No major agricultural civilizations or large scale exploitation of the environment could take hold Romans 0 Roman paganism was more codified and rigidly observed than the Greeks did it Eg Rules of who to worship what day what to do in that worship etc o Romans had a lot of haf humans in their mythology Because romans were more anthropocentric the creatures had to be haf human took on these quah es 4 Lifestyles and contradictions of those societies especially Romans Greeks o Ambivalence The Greeks were ambivalent about nature the roman s even more so 0 Loved nature but also exploited it not very intensively though because of their limited expansion the natural conditions they had in Greece Romans o The romans loved nature but they massively exploited nature just like were doing They loved animals but they were cruel to them and slaughtered them too just like us ambivalence o She wof Romulus amp remus Legend Founders of rome were part of the wild from the wild 0 Although Rome worshiped land like the Greeks they had much more of an Abrahamic tradition Eg You own the land you own it39s resources you expand o Over time Rome moved away from it39s connection with nature and moved towards anthropocentric attitudes Partly as a consequence of becoming a huge empire Later partly as a consequence of Christianity becoming official religion 5 Revivals of Greco Roman naturalism Romantics O O Revivalist of Greco roman concepts re introduced into large European cities eg London Paris etc They were concerned with what was going on with they modern world They were uncomfortable with destruction of nature They were uncomfortable with the idea that every advance the human race is making is good They romanticized about the distant past They recalled the good parts ignored the bad parts 2 A romanticization of Greco roman times They took the advanced view of the time upside down in saying that the natural world was actually better than the improveddeveloped world They were afraid of overcivilization and were afraid that humans would have control over everything Most romantic poets were Engish keats etc Transcendentalists American religious version of the romantic movement 0 O O OOOOO 2quotd generation of romantics individuals In America unlike Romantics mostly European Put god into nature whereas romantics in general weren39t concerned or thinking about god Americans Studied with romantics in late 1700s early 1800s Like their European counterparts in that they were all intellectuals we read people people trained in western religions Developed their own religion in part based on nature worship Emerson 18031882 FuHer18101850 Thoreau 18171862 Today modern environmentalists try to draw many parallelisms and make transcendentalists seem like early environmentalists But actually transcendentalists were more of a religious revivalism They thought Calvinism and such had made religion cold 6 Native American and Eastern philosophies Buddhism Hinduism 0 Very biocentric believes humans and nature are very intertwined o Take very holistic approach to env and nature Eg Animals affect plants tree39s affect soil amp climate just as soil and climate affect trees A big interconnected system 0 Belief in reincarnation amp karma Can be reincarnated into animals and trees Your karma is affected by how ethical you are and good or bad karma will affect you in both this life and the next life reincarnation o Moksha Hindu liberation from earthly matters 0 Ascetic life a life of sef denia and contemplation Life of Buddha Ancient Eastern Philosophies come out in the land ethic o Buddhism and Hinduism respect all forms of life they give ethical compassion to all creatures 0 To an extent Leopold shared these Eastern ideas Native Americans Taos Pueblo People ampThe Blue Lake Controversy o Aldo Leopold was in the Carson National Forest supervising theland o The taos pueblo people were trying to trade the land the US Govt had given them for the land that had Blue Lake on it Blue lake was considered sacred to the Taos Pueblo ppl 0 This affected Leopolds land ethic He appreciated how the pueblo people39s lives were tied to the agricultural seasons He appreciated how their lives were tied to the land itself A big part of Leopold39s land ethic comes from the spirituality of land and he was very influenced by the Taos Pueblo Blue Lake Controversy After New Mexico Leopold began to think that how the Forest Service was managing forest land wrong and that land should be preserved 7 Herding and agriculture cultures religion codes and practices Code of Hamurabi 1800 BC 0 Hamurabi King of Babylon in the region of Mesopotamia 0 Rules on plant domestication very strict rules 0 Rules on animal husbandry very strict rules Must take care of animals protect young and female only slaughter old animals keep healthy and well fed 0 Livestock raising Was a cornerstone from Mesopotamia to the present day Changed about 200 years ago with the industrial revolution The Ten Commandments 0 Show proper behavior 0 DO NOT INCLUDE ANIMALS amp NON HUMANS 0 Give codes of morality and ethics and virtue and righteousness to the Hebrews Code of Hamurabi vs Ten Comandments 0 Ethics by force vs moral ethics 0 According to ten commandments god gave the earth to mandkind For more Herding and Agricultural cultures knowledge see 0 Romans amp Greeks on the environment sections 3 and 4 o Manorial system Section 8 8 Monotheistic cultures and the Middle Ages For early monotheistic judiasm cultural idea see 10 commandments amp Abrahamic tradition notes Manorial divisions of labor 0 A castle was all about protection manor O Abrahamic concept of land continuing but in a more benign form of it that leads towards stewardship of the land They were all about agricultural sustainability The land was precious the people of the manor protected it they wanted to make it productive for all time Very little movement because manors were sef sufficient Agricultural sustainability 0 Theme of manorial system because land was perminantly settled bc of castles etc Beekepers horsemen blacksmith fow keepers pig men cow men 0 O sheepshearers wastelands People charged with agricultural sustainability Eg beekeeper its his job to make sure the hives and the bees are healthy Eg blacksmith he shoes the horses he39s supposed to make sure the horses and cows are well cared for in the blacksmith shop The horseman the guy who raises the horses who makes sure the horses are fed brushed healthy and the breeding ones are set aside to do that The fow keepers made sure the fowl are heathy need eggs feathers and meat Pig men take care of pigs they provide fertilizer then get eaten too Pigs run around break up soil shit in it creates more arable land Sheep most important commodity of the entire manor You can shear the sheep wool was the one commodity traded beyond the manor Mutton In medieval times mutton meant old sheep Because they wouldn39t just slaughter it they would shear it for years Only after it was incapable of surviving itself did they slaughter it and so it39s old meat was called mutton Bioregionalism 0 Modern term for ex Locay grown foods ocay produced energy local philosophy o Manorial system was bioregionalist Lynn White amp His Three Major Breakthroughs in Medeval Ages 0 1 The Heavy Plow enabled better more efficient farming o 2 Farm Cooperatives Enabled grouping of work animals to carry heavy plows o 3 3field crop rotation enabled 50 extra productivity ampyear round business Stewardship of the Land amp Sustainability 0 Things were sustainable during medieval times 0 Stewardship was a consequence of equilibrium production making enough to live on and the manorial system 9 Revivals of Greco Roman science and philosophy Scientific Revolution o Gallileo Galilei Thomas Hobbes Johannes Kepler are all famous to us for their advances in science 0 Began in the 1700s 0 Kant and Hume did the same thing for philosophy that others did for science and economics Reason 0 Revived in the Enlightenment o The idea that humans are separate from all other animals because humans can use the power of the mind 0 The power of the mind can solve the mysteries of the Earth and the universe Modernity meets stoicism OOO 0 Extra Knowledge amp Such To understand Leopold it is necessary to understand his influences o The abrahamic concept of land what it is where it came from 0 Nature worship its origins its progression to Leopold39s time 0 Science treatment of non human life the place of humans in the world 0 NonWestern philosophy 0 Bio centrism and anthropocentrism Muir Marsh and Leopold o Aldo Leopold read Marsh while at Yale o Leopold in time would expand on Marsh and Muir took Greek and Romans sustainable agriculturism and native americans to get the Land Ethic The Land Ethic 0 He sometimes called this conservation education 0 Must change our way of thinking first Ethics the discipline of dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty Environmental ethics The study of proper human behavior regarding use and treatment of the land water flora and fauna of Planet Earth Leopold The land ethic is to make men aware that their environment was a community to which they belonged not that they possessedquot Was Leopold ambivalent 0 He enjoyed living on the farm and living off the land but also had a home with all the modern technology and luxuries 0 He was not like Muir scorning his modern life 0 Rather he lived his modern life and enjoyed it but worked to spread his message 0 To think about does this make leopold environmentally ethically abmivialent Is it okay for someone to be environmentally ethical and yet still live and enjoy modernity and consequentially the consumption of resources which modernity brings 2 Only to think about More Biocentric Beliefs amp Influences on Leopold Ecological Consciousness To make men aware that the environment is a community to which they belong not they possess Leopold Leopold said his land ethic was based heavily on Darwin39s theories of evolution because it diminished the idea of divine separation between animals and humans Kinship rather than ordship over the planet Leopold39s idea of how it should be Leopoldweb of life Life is like a spider web it can stay intact if a few of the threads are cut but if too many are cut it will collapse We have to define our existence as sef imposed limitations His environmental ethicimposing limits on what society does Widening the circle Ethics should not just concern people but also animals the environment inanimate objects The circle must be widened Round River He discusses ecology the greatest discovery of the 20 century was learning about the land mechanism The land mechanism If the biota has in the course of eons has built something beautiful but that we don39t understand Wildiife and American Culture If left unchecked people will huntfish animals out of existence Anthropocentricism Strong anthropocentrism Only values non human species for their use Rene Descartes 15961650 0 Animals are machines that do not suffer and have no feeHngsquot o argued that we could do whatever we wanted to animals Weak anthropocentrism Humans are special but we must take care of nature Nature doesn39t have rights unless we make the moral choice to give it rights We should give nature rights Comes out of the Greeks Plato Socrates Aristotle the Stoics and the Bible Ex George Perkins Marsh Immanuel Kant 17241804 weak anthropocentrist a lot like Marsh people are special and not part of nature but we owe nature responsibility and we should take care of nature the moral responsibility to the rest of nature Environmental stewardship Abrahamic Concept of the Land Ten Commandments this is where it came from o Leopold says we abuse the land because we see it as a commodity to us Basically earth is here for man 0 Strong anthropocentricism George Perkins Marsh Men Nature 1864 o Argues yes humans are special we are better than nature we are outside of nature 0 BUT we need to practice stewardship or we will destroy our environment and collapse Leopold read this when he was in Yale influential on him Rome Stoicism Plato Aristotle Socrates developed this Stoicism is about being reasonable logical ethical Cicero institutionalized the idea of stoicism in rome He set up codes about moral behavior between human beings Natural Law came out of stoicism OOOO o The stoics argued that natural law has always been around since civilization began because of an innate moral agreement 0 It39s a good code of ethics but it doesn39t include animals or objects 0 Only humans included in natural law only human human relationships 0 The stoics said humans have no moral obligations to animals The stoics were moving roman society further and further away from nature No animal worship no nature worship no closeness to animals Extreme anthropocentricism 0 It39s allonly about us If we take responsibilities for things like we39re stewards of the land we have responsibility and it s not extreme anthropocentricism It39s the least environmentally friendly thing Part of stoicism part of natural law
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