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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Trokel on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2420-001 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by S. Nelson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health Performance in Psychlogy at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 01/12/16
Week 5 Water H2O made of two hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom ● needs no digestion and is easily absorbed ● makes up to 50% to 75% of body weight ● major solvent ● very essential without water, death can occur within 1 to 2 weeks Functions of water in the body a solvent major component of blood , saliva, sweat, tears, music, joint fluid removes wastes helps transports substances lubricates tissues regulates body temperatures helps digests foods participates in many chemical reactions helps maintain proper blood pH Sources of Water Total of water intake: includes water in beverages and foods water weights of fruits and vegetables typically ranges from 60 to 95% Metabolic Water: Water formed by cells as a metabolic byproduct Diuretic ● Diuretics ○ substances that increase urine output ● Two common dietary diuretics ○ caffeine ○ alcohol ● Diuretics inhibit ADH, resulting in urinary water losses that are less than amount of fluid consumption Dehydration ● 1 to 2% fatigue and thirst ● 4% loss of muscular strength and endurance ● 7 to 10% severe weakness ● 20% death Can too much water be toxic? ● Water intoxication ○ too much water consumed at a time, or conditions in which kidneys have difficulty filtering water from blood ■ excess water dilutes sodium concentration of blood, disrupting water balance ○ Signs and symptoms: ■ Dizziness, headache, confusion, poor coordination, bizarre behavior, and seizures ■ Can be deadly What is BPA ● Although bottled water is safe to drink, the plastic used to contain it may have toxic effects on health ● Bisphenol A, which is also called BPA is a chemical used to make polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins ● Scientists are studying BPA to determine the extent to which the chemical can affect human health Major and Trace Minerals ● Major minerals ○ are essential mineral elements required in amounts of 100 mg or more per day ■ calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulfur ● Trace Minerals ○ are essential mineral elements required in amounts that are less than 100 mg per day ■ Chromium, fluoride, copper, iodine, iron , manganese, molybdenum, selenium, zinc Why are minerals necessary? Diverse roles, including: structural components of tissues ions blood clotting fluid bal Sodium and Hypertension Hypertension condition characterized by persistently elevated blood pressure Hypertension increases risk of: heart disease Stroke Kidney failure Blood Pressure ● Systolic pressure maximum blood pressure within arteries when ventricles of the heart contract ● Diastolic pressure pressure when ventricles relax between contractions Major Risk Factors For Hypertension Not a single cause, but several factors increase risk family history advanced age african american ancestry obesity physical inactivity consuming excess sodium excess alcohol type 2 diabetes cigarette smoking Potassium ● Why is potassium necessary? ○ Major positively charged ion in intracellular fluid ○ Needed for nerve impulses, contracting muscles, and kidney function ○ potassiumrich diets may reduce blood pressure ● Diet adequacy: ○ Al:4700mg/d ■ most americans consume ~2700mg/d Magnesium ● Participates in >300 chemical reactions ● Roles in the body include ○ regulation of muscle and nerve function ○ Maintenance of strong bones ○ Strengthening the immune system ● Dietary adequacy ○ Adult RDA = 310 to 420 mg/d Magnesium Deficiency and Toxicity ● Deficiency ○ Rare among healthy americans ○ most likely in girls between 1418 of age ● Toxicity ○ Results from ingesting excessive laxatives, antacids, or dietary supplements. Iron (Fe) ● Why is Iron necessary? ○ Iron is a component of hemoglobin and myoglobin ■ Hemoglobin iron containing protein in RBC that transports oxygen to tissues and some CO2 away from tissues ■ Myoglobin iron containing protein in muscle cells that controls the oxygen uptake from RBC ● Iron is involved in energy generation and immune function Regulating Iron Digestive tract absorbs 515% of iron. only ~5%of iron from enriched grains is absorbed Most Iron is stored as ferritin in the liver Iron from broken down hemoglobin is “recycled” and incorporated into new hemoglobin Dietary Adequacy ● RDA ○ Women = 18 mg/d iron ■ most females from ages 19 to 50 years have low intakes ● men = 8 mg/d ○ average intake for american men is 17.5 mg/d Signs and Symptoms of Iron Deficiency Anemia ● Pale skin ● fatigue and weakness ● irritability ● difficulty concentrating and thinking ● brittle nails ● headaches Zinc ● Why is zinc necessary? ○ a component of about 100 enzymes ○ needed for ■ wound healing ■ normal sense of taste and smell ■ DNA synthesis ■ immune function Zinc Deficiency ● Zinc deficiency often occurs in people with chronic digestive tract problems and exclusively breastfed infants ● Associated with delayed sexual maturation and growth retardation ● no maturing ● so many of our foods have a lot of zinc that is why zinc deficiency is so rare or uncommon Iodide ● Why is Iodide necessary? ○ Required for normal thyroid function and production thyroid hormone ○ Thyroid hormone controls metabolic rate ○ In the US some table salt is fortified with iodide to prevent deficiency Dietary Deficiency of Iodide ● Goiter: ○ Characterized by enlarged thyroid gland ○ Common before advent of iodized salt in areas where iodine content of soil was poor ● Cretinism: ○ Irreversible condition affecting infants born to women who were iodide deficient during pregnancy Fluoride ● Fluoride is not an essential nutrient ● Fluoride strengthens bones and teeth when ingested in small amounts ● Long term consumption of too much fluoride can cause fluorosis ○ white specks on teeth → teeth becoming brown or black ● putting fluoride in water decrease chances of cavities by 67% for children Selenium (Se) ● Why is Selenium Necessary? ○ Part of several proteins called selenoproteins ■ many selenoproteins are antioxidants ● antioxidants are keeping you safe from disease ○ May reduce risk of certain cancers ○ kehsan disease heart gets enlarged Osteoporosis Bone health two types of bone tissue cortical bone (compact bone ) very dense tissue making up 80% of the skeleton trabecular bone (spongy bone ) “scaffolding” on the inside of bones, supports cortical bone and makes up 20%of the skeleton helps us weigh less but prone to osteoporosis ● Bones develop through three processes: ○ bone growth increase in bone size; completed by age 14 in girls and age 17 in boys ○ bone modeling shaping of bone completed by early adulthood ○ bone remodeling reshaping of bone ● Bone remodeling involves: ○ Resorption surface of bones is broken down ■ osteoclasts cells that erode the surface of bones ○ Formation of new bone by cells called osteoblasts ■ Osteoblasts produce the collagen containing component of bone Osteoporosis ● Factors influencing the risk of osteoporosis include: ○ age ○ gender ○ genetics ○ nutrition ○ physical activity weight bearing exercise and toning ● There is no cure ● The progression of osteoporosis may be slowed by ○ adequate calcium and vitamin D intake ■ regular exercise ■ antiresorptive medications Peak bone mass occurs at approx. 30 years of age. Afterwards, bone loss starts to outpace bone deposition; at menopause there is a surge of calcium out of the bones the hump on the back of older people dowager's hump loss of calcium bone loss and most common type of bone fractures in women spinal vertebrae, hip, and wrist or forearm fractures Risk factors for developing Osteoporosis ● alcoholism ● advanced age ● female gender ● chronic steroid use ● Rheumatoid arthritis ● surgically removal of ovaries ● thinness or weight loss ● white race Cause of Osteoporosis ● Calcium and vitamin D ○ bone strength later in life ■ bone building during childhood and adolescence ● Gender and hormone ○ menopause for women ○ body weight ● physical activity ● tobacco smoke and alcohol ● protein ○ too little ○ too much ○ sources ● sodium, caffeine ● other nutrients Calcium Recommendations ● Recommendations vary: ○ set according to lifestyle ● Sources: ○ foods and beverages first ■ dietary calcium ■ sunshine for vitamin D ○ Supplements ■ types of supplements 1000 mg of calcium per day for 1950 years Diagnosis and Medical Treatment ● DEXA scan ● Drug therapies ● Estrogen replacement therapy
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