MUS 219 Class notes
MUS 219 Class notes RTF 310
Popular in History of Cinema, Radio, and TV
Popular in Film
This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jason Notetaker on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to RTF 310 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Dr. Caryn Murphy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see History of Cinema, Radio, and TV in Film at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 01/13/16
The Rest is Noise Preface What’s inexpressible in music may not lie in music itself but in, us in the 19 century, music has become a type of spiritual religion by audiences mentioning of it in message the music gives imagination, mood and emotions, ex) a teen plays metal music to hype him up at the gym having listened to music in generation gaps is something to consider (use myself as an example listening to everything from metal to rock to classical) Chapter 1 People associate classical music as dead music music is always neverending and dying it has no genealogy it is considered an art Author went to college in northern California engaged in a classical radio show Punk following classical with “fuck shit up as punk popular song Bach is the first classical artist that ever will be first composer to use an art in music around 1850, classical music grew less popular in Germany from 89% in 1845 to 25% in 19 century th th In the 19 century, people still carried themselves in high manner as music before 1845 was performed classical music began to get old in its art form th Music started to take social and cultural form in the 19 century people who wrote / listened to music combining old and new social and cultural aspects = not successful A major social change took place in classical music in the white middle class and in jazz in the down and dirty class jazz and ragtime dominated slowly contemporary composers grew successful due to the economy and money they inherited from work(s) Classical music became less popular from 5% nationwide to 2% and jazz followed the same process contemporary music dominated with composers such as Bartok and divorjak the younger audiences think of music as not 1 genre on shuffle, “culture aware nonattenders” do not go to Classical concert in the modern age these are the older audiences, social and cultural upbringing of people changed the face of music Chapter 2 Ostinato (originated in Spain) (repeating bass line) Italian for obsolete, accent is on beat 2 Chaconne and popular dances such as the chaconne invented dances died sometime later due to social norms The ostinato spread the German, Italian, French and English hands the basso lamento came to (the p4 was important in minor) Music scales determine mood (major = happy and minor = sad in Western Europe) boccent or lament (made by Bella Bartok) was made popular in Europe in 1917 Medieval music in the renaissance was polyphony vs. melodic structure the lament contour was made popular in this time period church composers swayed from melodic structure with the melodic scale as modal Opera was invented in Italy slightly after before 1600 the magical invented and spread to England years later, lacrame by dowland, (a pleasing melancholy) music creates mood that sometimes has no name First major opera invented in 1598 with lament, without lament, opera would have never existed the basso continuoso was important in opera Frescobaldi made the chaconne popular in a book series (chaconne’s were in major keys and passacillias in minor keys) made book with 100 variations with chaconne’s and passacaglia’s Monteverdi published book in 1638 with madricals that had three passions anger, temperance and supplication as main themes 1637 opera was commercial entertainment after mordiverdi’s death cavali shaped the opera genre a downward motion in whole notes in bass line was popular he prolonged the downward motion in chromatic motion Chaconne spread to France and England the French chaconne spreads to Chinese links saranbande dance invented (a slow 3/2 time signature by George Frederic Handel Henry purcel lead English chaconne composer, “when I am laid in earth popular chaconne by purcel in 1689”, chromatic movement in prominent Bach made popular by name as an organist mass in d minor this was the beginning of the fugue pachabel cannon made popular (movement in 4ths) Bach intrigued by bass lines in chromatic movement he implemented the early music terms of Italy mass in b minor was his last great work (the death of Jesus Christ) expanded the instrumentation and structure from the number 13 (hence 13 guests at the last supper,) Bach died in 1750 as the baroque died with him Afterwards music became linear in the romantic period Beethoven studied Bach mass in b minor and his chromatic ostinatos th The First World War in the 20 century shaped music among young composers the lament by ligieti became popular and known by millions he wrote piano compositions from baroque and classical era style the chaconne style was present in them 1903, early blues was born and years later it became prominent a change of instrumentation was heard ostinato and chromatic motion is prominent in blues Early music ears were used in the blues and ragtime even in early jazz, this spread to music in the 60’s and 70’s artists such as bob Dylan and led zeppelin downward chromatic bass lines were prominent Chapter 3 John Phillip Sousa said in 1906 music machines will damage music music has become a medium fewer and fewer people know how to play music and simply make arrangements of other songs Thomas Edison invented the cylinder and has no idea music would evolve to an industry pictured the cylinder or phonograph for teaching and educational purposes Johann Brahms attempted to record his first Hungarian dance Soussa feared the phonograph would replace live music a new device (mp3) player replaces the vinyl record, etc…, Magnetic tape was crucial in electronic music development Germany first started this magnetic tape allowed errors to be allowed in the rec. studio overdub is an example, digital recording (o’s and 1’s) became popular pro tools and auto tune is capable of this Early jazz recordings (from Louie Armstrong and Duke Ellington) gave a chance to occupy a global platform pitch correction, patching and knob tweaking came to play in the early 1950’s recordings became a virtual reality The phonograph changed how people played and sang music vibrato was used less and less in future recordings partamento (sliding of the voice) was created people from Europe transferred this to usa culture in performers Caruso recorded una furtive lagrima in 1902 and became a hit (sliding of the tenor voice) this influenced other composers to insert this in their works In modern renaissance and baroque ensembles put a twist on music these performers include jordi savall William Christie and violinist Andrew manze to add embellishment or improvisitation to a score of their liking, The music is liberated and changed the digital age may cause confusion most of the money is made through touring and merchandise the orchestra is fading in instrumentation in music as new current music is released music mps downloads are popular and in social media new vinyl buyers can now compare mp3 to mp3 for instance Classical music stands outside the technological realm as modern music uses microphones and electronic material people now have access to recording music in laptops and I pads people may not use the recording studio and experience the atmosphere Chapter 4 Mozart born in Salzburg Germany in 1756 and died in Vienna in 1791 he was very flirtations and obscene his father was Leopold as a child advertised in London Mozart believed death is ultimate goal of existence his music is the empire of the golden mean (never too much or too little) golden mean found in violin concerto in 1779 (going from Eb major to c minor continuously) many people thought of him a sublime child who wrote serene music Modern day scholars not him as a successful and hard working composer in his hundreds of works Mozart eventually became more successful than his father before he died Leopold’s greatest gift to Mozart was to compose with collaboration and the general public in mind The gap between inanity and unintelligence is wide writing his works was like a map of unknown territory (he’d write a little here and there and finish later, but he was always writing) he eventually works himself to death when he died in 1791 he never completed his 636 requiem at his death Put drama and emotion to string instrumental works the issue of this connecting to his life remains a debate to discuss Did Mozart connect music to emotion to convey his feelings? Dissonance offsets beauty in his works (mainly instrumental) no symphonies existed after 1788 (the Jupiter symphony) in his last years, Mozart grew into a more melodic music style Complexity was seen in his final works and went back to his beginnings his last final works displayed forking path music styles to be noticed if they were to be played in dentist offices, they would cause confusion and panic to listeners there have been many published books / articles explaining why Mozart did what he did in final years some of his last final works depicted the crucifixion and display religion romantic composers could not understand Mozart what he did in his last final works to use in their works Chapter 5 Christoph De Bablon (experimental DJ for Radiohead) a British rock band, audiences did not applaud him but only by the band from early hit songs and CD’s in early days, rock bands have common interests but Radiohead does not (some members do) how they got as popular as they have who knows OK Computer sold 4 mil. Albums worldwide Radiohead writes its songs in three parts: a rough sketch, then the harmonies is fleshed out and others members digest its material until they write parts on their own (this process can take months or years) the band began to rewrite songs and material, the band started to have different interests The band began at Abbington School outside Oxford England classmates started studying music and scores the group originally played under the name “On a Friday” they were more famous abroad vs. in England “Creep” was the first song that used pivot chords trade makers of the band are musical space and harmonic structure When “Amniesiac” came out, the band started using more instrumentation and not following the verse chorus verse chorus pattern, when “Amnesiac” went for sale in the USA in 2001, the album did not get a lot of attention The band would say, “the world is not that good and there’s nothing We can do vs. U2 would say the world is not that good and we can do something about it The band went on an American tour Yorke (one of the members mentioned “Americans only make fast money with no change in the music industry. Change makes higher profit, but that’s something American’s do not do. Chapter 6 Solenen is a unique sort of celebrity (conductor for the LA philharmonic orchestra he had the orchestra very contemporary in the world Solenen told the orchestra he would step down in 2007 in lue to composing music, Dudamel was hired as conductor from Australia April 9 when Solenen was conducting makes a markable point in history (the last time he conducted) Joseph horowitz notes in his 2005 book writes about a “culture of performance” (why Europe had a difficult time spreading its music to the USA) Contemporary orchestral music was among the most difficult to work with Bernstein showed New Yorkers the cultural gap and how important it was in the 20 century th The LA philharmonic was founded in 1917 by William Andrew Clark Jr. Clark was a skilled violinist the orchestra took risks in raising money for a new concert hall and appointed its first wizkid music Director Zubin Mehta 1969 hired manager Earnest Fleshmen, he brought in a new performance hall / conductor in 1969 Solenen was born into a musical family in 1951 believed girls play piano and boys play soccer Solenen played French horn in school through college began getting interested in contemporary percussion scores was very open to all types of music Solenen was musically trained in Europe he understood the culture of the “non’attenders” was common in America (let alone LA) orchestra members urged him to listen to what people or attenders enjoyed The orchestra had been handed down by old money families from Pasadena CA, the orch. moved to performance hall in Disneyland Theme Park and regularly sold 92% of concert tickets minimalism came to and was not social worthy at first but gradually became well known The orchestra had done well with younger composers the orchestra also tried to bring in new listeners without damaging the old, Solenen did want to be a conductor he thought it was a low paid job that did not get much social attention, who stays in the worst of the hotels while traveling from place to place Solenen wrote a score for the orchestra that gradually was socially accepted and felt more confident in stepping down only to compose music The orchestra began to wonder about the new conductor and wanted someone confident and good attitude Dudamel was hired as the new conductor in 2009 from Venezuela, conducting was a big part in his life Venezuela is a music culture like no other in the world Chapter 7 Schubert’s friends thought of him as a lovable tippler this imagthbecame prominent in Victorian Brittan, in the 20 century is filled with his dissonance and complexity The image of Schubert is unstable due to historical records his music is rich and melodies of unexpected beauty He was very shy and arrogant and an avid reader he worshiped women and went his leisure times in a drunken stature Born in 1809 and died in 1828, wrote 1000 works in his life time sonatas in 1829 were not in high demand dance music and Italian operas, He found his musical personality in 1817 September of 1817 he wrote his first string score 1816 to 1822 was a time of exploration in his songwriting he made many attempts at opera he invented the epic song cycle during this time when Beethoven died in 1827, he requested to be buried next to Schubert when he died Schubert was the most literary of all composers he also studied poetry Beethoven definitely helped the romantic time period come to but literature and Schubert’s literature made the romantic period the romantic period Schubert had a high passion for poetry in his last final months to his death, he shared an apartment with Mayropher who killed himself in 1836 he wrote many poems of very dark romantic literature Schubert incorporated in his music works this in a way made the romantic period what it is today in 1820, the two men got separate apartment s in 1820 and Schubert’s life was in life crisis present in disturbance of Johann Zenn 1822, Schubert had infected syphilis after this time Schubert became hedrosexaual and became involved in several affairs During this time be became homosexual and returned to his music art form writing symphonies he turned to Mayropher’s poetry and wrote music based on the imagery it congeals the death and the maiden quartet was written and in classical rules contemporary composers look in his scores for new paths and look to him as a colleague 18231828 he writes in greater art form in large structures in harmonic modulations a rhythm may repeat itself to give a sense of traveling motion G major quartet is his most advanced work and looks to progressive thinking he touches on the whole tone scale (this is prominent in Debussy’s work in the Impressionistic period Schubert’s have a historical harmonic progression this gave new meaning to people who analyzed his works involving music theory and enharmonic spellings in his final works the chords he chose in his final years gave imagery example is b minor gave the image of a walking corpse Chapter 8 Bjork is the most famous Icelander since Leif Erikson She is warm, honest and direct, easy to talk to early works were done at greenhouse studios very spacious and environmental inviting, her dress style is usually tshirt and ripped jeans Her music is usually orchestral and choral noted for using extravagant metaphors when explaining and describing music usually specific in what she asks for The volcanic structure of (Reykjavik) gives meaning to literature/works in music (such as Wagner’s symphonies) Hekla is Iceland’s loudest music score and volcano and is made up of 19 percussive instruments including anvils, bells, stones whistles Bjork music is easily compared to the volcano, she listens avidly to choral music (popular in Icelandic culture) Vithar 86 ys old (the most intrinsic recording done by Bjork) Starting at 5, Bjork attended Tonment Escole music school in Iceland took up music theory and history lessons, and attended choir, and mastered the flute Stockhausen is an influence to Bjork (20 century composer) she made her own avante guarde experiments such as her father snoring and of popcorn machine She went on a bike tour of Iceland in 1990 stopping and playing the harmonium at churches and soon after began exploring in pop music in synthesizer form 1992 she moved to England to explore pop, electronic, and ambient music at its heist peak with new digital technologies, artists could cover the fuzz of synthesizers Bjork was attracted to massive attack, digital music begame a backdrop for female voices such as her own she wanted to bring traditional orchestral music into electronic music her first idea was to play horns behind an electronic sound she combines precision pitch with force of feeling (most divas mention focusing too much on pitch gives emotion and vice versa, it’s hard to focus on once at a time), in February of 2004 She went to southern Brazil (Salvador) an avante guarde demonstration much like ones in Iceland but not as big and cultural she became fond of a Canada tribal game where two female vocal singers sit face to face making vocal breathy noises trying to make the both smile Brazilian paparazzi found of her in the country, they knew she was famous but did not know what for in 1998 she moved back to Rejavaik this was a period of rerenchment a certain type of harshness entered her music Marc Bell became her electronic guru th Bjork became aware of combining the classical world with 20 century electronic music she has been known to experiment with classical fusion Medula is Bjork’s most classical album involving tricky melodies and harmonies with African beboxing the human beboxer show its power to technology, who mimics turn tables, scratches records and produces related equipment when actual equipment is not available She did not like how Medula was mixed and she drew diagrams to explain how the sound should be her conventional way, she ended up recording on a TC6000 a reverb device to add spatial effects to the voices without upsetting the balance Chapter 9 Chen Xiong won an award for the Olympics during his years, classical music was forbidden in Bejing but welcomes in Paris France where he visited for some time (this is due to the western cultural trend) classical music in China for the past 15 – 20 years has been very a la mode (music culture is huge ex out of a class of 40, 36 are studying piano) People who visit there often leave with the feeling of classical music is exploding all over China, 30 or 100 million children study piano voice or violin at a young age the culture thrives on different music influences in the genre The national performing arts center is China’s biggest music culture scene with 2 different music halls (opera hall seats 2,400 and the concert hall seats 2,000 the building (The Egg) opened in 2007, with different acoustics when musicians perform at either building, large blocks of tickets are set aside for politicians and related personel (typically run for 480 yen = 70 USD), the concert attenders have a sense of rich Chinese culture, especially for those students who are studying music at (The Egg) the average USA student who practices seven hours a week On an instrument is common in China where they practice twice or three times as much, where Julliard has 800 students, the Chinese music culture in (The Egg) has 10,000 when first entered in the conservatory, a student isn’t automatically a classical student the mix of jazz, pop and classical genres bring western European traditions to China for a culture based tradition outside sources say China is the world’s largest music scene country and is the future of classical music Western music arrived in China in 1601 when a clavicord was presented to the country it was set aside at first but pulled out o discover what it was capable of The first orchestra was the Chang Hi municipal orchestra which began in 1909,it only had foreign players in 1927 the first Chinese music conservatory was invented the rise of Hitler and relevant culture eventually shut down the school in 1966 and western classical Music was wiped out and most of the native traditions were erased and replaced with revolutionary topics in the mid 70’s western music again began to creep into Chinese culture the conservatory re opened in 1978 with hundreds of people applying for many places, most of the students People who studied music in China were almost forced to manual labor and study folk music during the revolutionary period Composers of the 1978 generation are least known in Chinese culture Guo was one of these composers he collected songs of various source in the mid 1980’s from Bella Bartok and Dimitri Shatkovitch western culture met Chinese culture and was accepted in (The Egg), the invention of the Internet made musicians less isolated in the 80’s D22 is an underground music scene in Chinese culture flooded with different cultures with American college students as one this scene does not include classical music but pop music Traditional music is more classical than anything in the west, musicians perform for their own pleasure and not for money Chapter 10 The place where you go to listen in Alaska translated raw data to music (involved electric sound) 5 glass panels can determine the sound (ex the sun hitting the wall can stretch sound 4 octaves and the moonlight causes low choir like sound) opened at the spring equinox in 2008 Adams strives to create musical counterparts in his music he moved to Fairbanks Alaska in 1978 at 25 years old he was a composer where he believed space exists between notes in music he is happiest when he takes extends camping trips, he lives in a well furnished split level house which he designed and built himself Born in meridian Mississippi in 1953 where his father worked as an accountant for AT& Adams grew found of Frank Zappa, he grew more interested other than three chords he moved again in 1969 when he was 16, 1971 Adams moved to LA where he studies at Cal Arts first major encounter was with Morton Feldman from NY Adams heard on a Columbia LP piece of 4 pianos playing at different speeds, this showed him music can break European tradition while retaining a sensuous allure this inspired him to write a piece for three perc. parts accelerating and decelerating throughout the song he lived in a cabin outside Fairbanks Alaska, he lived the life of Emmerson in the 1980’s he wrote orchestral music that he was proud of but didn’t seem right for the time period in the 1990’s he wrote an opera famous called Earth and the Great Weather a century later he wrote In the White silence (a 75 minute piece with various orchestral instruments depicting the calm and violent changes in the 4 seasons his inspiration was on a trip to the Yukon in spring where he heard ice cracking and breaking representing various bells and miscellaneous percussion, instruments His greatest works are said to be beyond style of contemporary classical music of tonal and atonal music he believed in music you could live with he is fascinated with the arts, there’s more painter books than music books in his private studio he is noted for writing electronic small ensembles and percussion ensembles He longs to write for orchestra and larger ensembles Gordon Wright was a close friend and conductor of Adams and listened to music all the time Often they went into the wilderness a lot listening to orchestral music driving through Alaska and believed this is where the two music worlds may meet Wright died in 2007 outside his cabin in Fairbanks Alaska, he has a love for the remote of places on earth, his favorite is the northern most point in the Rocky Mtns. he compared sounds of nature to instruments in the orchestra or vocal ensembles He has hundreds of field recordings of nature in the 90’s he hopes to someday analyze it and compare it to orchestral instruments or use it to write small vocal or percussion ensembles he wants to write music according to the sounds of nature and climate change Chapter 11 Verdi is among the most popular composer and conductor of opera thousands of people went to a Times Square free concert and many pushed and shoved to get in (just like a rock concert) Otello was one of Verdi’s operas had no star performers and brought people together outside the USA and through the European tradition got to know the composer people come to Verdi’s operas not for the plot, but because he meant every word Verdi was known as a self taught genius he was a man known for his popular melodies born in 1803 outside the town of Busetto music was considered to be very serious in Italian towns his first Alberto in 1839 was a big success he was then considered the chief of opera Italy was known as a republic for this time as Verdi was writing opera He moved to Paris in 1849 Between 1850 and 1860 he edged into composing works based on French opera these are based on pessimism and fate these operas tell of love and emotion He grew daring in his music (as if he were throwing dice) he retired from opera, wrote string quartets, first 1861 he was drawn back to opera from the literary works from Shakespeare in his last years he was known as an outdates figure and younger opera composers came to his famous at this time was Rigoletto, Troyovore, Traviata and Adia never seemed to dull audiences as they were darker of his works Verdi’s works are displayed all over the world and if composers follow his style is another matter Verdi’s operas often contain pivot on pitched epiphanies 1955 Amami Alfredo is among the most significant singing of Verdi on record vocal response in soprano and alto voices react to the strings to give emotion and response Verdi required pushing to the limit of his singers, he preferred dramatic vs technical singers in his operas conductors of the past often rejected tempo markings in some operas and approached with more of an impromptu response (that is made on the spot) sopranos that sang Verdi’s operas often were required to know the emotion of the part they sang to give full effect regardless of tempo If singers and performers approach Verdi’s operas today as studious, they often follow contempt and go about the opera as if performing it for the first time most plotlines seem funny of Verdi’s operas at first, but then becomes more clear when studied Verdi is very sight specific, his opera characters are against and for social worlds realisim did bore Verdi as he preferred to invent the truth traditionalists and radicals who approach Verdi’s world make mistakes (the answer is to be responsive to let the work dictate the staging this is regardless of people who see the opera for the first time He composed music not for music sake; he did it for every phrase that tells of a story Verdi restores a sense of belonging to his operas and people that attend them in the 20 and 21 centuriesst Chapter 12 The St. Lawrence quartet: Geoff Nutall, Barry Siftmman, Lesley Robertson and Marina Hoover the contemporary quartet practices contemporary music and have played in international capitals their most unusual appearance was in Vietnam, they are a classical ensemble they follow what the score says (ex if the score tells them to scream they do so proudly) Hoover is most organized of the quartet and knows when planes leave as an example when the quartet is traveling The quartet has a gift of describing musical abstractions and terminology ¾ of the members are very attracted to new works in one of their contemporary works done by an arrangement of Haydn, he changes the fingerings of the string instruments as if to tell the performers to lighten up and begin playing in gypsy style Many passages the quartet practices sound improvised as they represent a contemporary flare to the music The audiences of El Paso Texas is most fond of the performers and the performers have the biggest turnout there they had a performance in Joplin and the entire performance was contemporary 1/3 of the audience did not understand the performance and left at intermission these people were not music students the quartet does not play for fame for the quality of the music making but for the joy the take in the act of connection to people, musicians and performers around the world Chapter 13 Kiki 60 yr old lounge singer who is a fictional character in creation she is aiming to attract audiences by singing new contemporary hits lately she has taken an interest in rap music which she calls the folk music of today She was born in the great depression in 1929 she was placed and given the name retarded and placed in a children’s ward at an early age today she sings jazz contemporary standards, Kiki and her piano player (Herb) are taken as comedy but are serious performers Herb is known to be a drag queen, epically in 60’s and 70’s hippie outfits he studied theater and avante guarde style music Kiki studied poetry and the arts for a few years then emerged as Kiki and Herb in the 80’s The two performers perform on s political sphere and socioclass high points of their shows are the medley’s both of them incorporate rap into their performances both thought of taking their performances to theaters vs. cocktail lounges, Certain cultures have roots to unique styles of music (ex USA, pop, hiphop, country and China, classical music, electro music) Avante guarde music compares to free jazz and underground rock closer than we think noise is described as music people do not understand noise can also describe an acoustical phenomenon, humans are attracted to certain chords from music this is why the three music styles are interlocked Cecil Taylor is a master of this music style in 1958 with his album Jazz Advanced he remains off the grid of pop culture he is a piano improviser and popular for it his hammer clavier sound is also famous, he is known for suspicion in the jazz world by many musicians and critics He comes off as more of an improviser than a composer two other composers who are Matthew Shipp and Marilyn Crispell have followed him in Taylor’s music style, jazz music and intonality sounds more sensuous to the human ear can rock music go atonal? The Beatles were first to explore this followed by other artists such as the byrds bands have been stable for nearly 20 years guitars do not twist and shout, instead they chime and blend with others and throughout the music performed string instruments are retuned to give atonal sound and pitch collection sound and harmonies slide into clusters of sound to be described as unusual or different by the audience(s) the birth of the form ABA come to by Led Zepplin’s “Whole Lotta Love” The voice of Frank Sinatra reflected his personality but should be remember him for his breath control and used to swim laps completely underwater thinking about lyrics all the time he should be remembered for his vocal courage saving his voice for the moment he needed it most he should be remembered for his love of language the way he brought words to life he should be remembered for his complex array of orchestral arrangements for matching his voice Cobain lead singer of Nirvana killed himself with a shotgun in 1994 media outlets were surprised to hear the news about the grunge rock superstar his personal songs became known for gender identity he chose death due to reject it and also redirect it, MTV categorized the band as alternative music this differs from the punk rock movement that was present in the 70’s and 80;s some of the music was rugged and dumb while some was invented in warehouses and garages Kobain was a punk rocker in his voice naturally nd on Nirvanas 2 album walked a line between punk and pop content they struck a nerve not only in kids but in people in 20’s and 30’s for mixing the two music styles together that stuck in people’s heads the song were catchy and simple in ABC form, Kobain was intrigued by new audiences but liked to toy and play with their minds to progressing to punk rock roots He set himself apart when it came to language he used and set him apart from the G&R high school crowd his suicide note contained a lack of passion with the rock audience he leaned on drugs in his last years, he delivered a last final note to the rock audiences (rock stars are glamored for dying young but not for suicide a drug induced decent is the preferred way to die, his final lyrics sound like suicide lyrics to be spread to rock audiences and its listeners Chapter 14 1998 in the Malcom X Shabazz marching band meets for three hours each day some want to go to class for enjoyment and others go to class just to pass the time each day, the members range of age from 8 to 18 The band uses the Sibelius music software program to practice and write music the conductor Vernan composes with contemporary top 40 standards George Bush signed into law the “no child is left behind act” in 2002 he did not account for those in music and the arts since 1971, the arts and music has been rapidly getting more and more expensive music education in 2002 in CA dropped from all music schools from 1.1 mil. to 589k and music education has been rapidly disappearing since then Anyone who loves music at an early age has a unique and irreplaceable value but hard to turn into sociological data studies have shown if students listen to classical music (such as Mozart duo for 2 pianos) perform better on standardized tests, this is known as the Mozart effect people love this idea to make others smarter but kids only make the call (hence, this can’t be forced) music education has largely evolved out of classical music culture Another is music education lacks a powerful lobby (political scheme) in 2006, Huckabee signed a bill to have children experience at least 40 minutes of music to be heard, he says “leaving the arts behind in public schools is beyond neglect” Virtually every opera house chamber ensemble or jazz organization has a music education dept; musicians teach music theory and the arts in schools in order to survive the feeling of when students were once teenagers Joseph Horowitz urged orchestras to re invent themselves as cultural centers and or conservatories the orchestras should be an educational art he mentioned Maxine Greene mentioned argued that arts education not only can be a leisure pursuit but an instigator for social change The arts in America define themselves to opposition in society the problem with contemporary teachers and professors have been trained in the culture music conservatory where master of technique is the dominant topic other topic is discouraged Chapter 15 Maria Anderson made an appearance at the Washington Monument approved through John F Kennedy over 75,000 people came to hear her sing because she was black by the late 30’s she was known as the contrellto (the greatest voice of the century), Martin Luthur King Jr. grew found of her and her vocal performances two decades later he delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech and delivered the first two improvised lines of My Country Tis of Thee and Anderson in mind When Barak Obama became president of the USA in January of 2009, “My Country Tis of Thee was sung by Aretha Franklin over a crowd of 2 million Anderson was born in 1897 in Philadelphia in a poor state, she had vocal music talent at a young age she went to music school years later and was treated badly while the other students in line went in front of her because she was black her most famous performance was of her performing the Brahms Allto Rhapsody she first recorded in 1939 with the Philadelphia orchestra She was a musician of the pure inward kind and she preferred not to make a scene in major music performances she did not accept horizontal segregation but did in vertical segregation with blacks on one side of isle and whites on the other she took her meals in hotel and motel rooms not to cause any situations or problems She broke a barrier in 1955 when she was the first black woman to appear in the metropolitan opera she sang for 10 more years, she might have been accepted in opera if she was around before she was born She was capable of signing almost anything as her voice is one that comes along every century after she died, she made life easier for black women musicians according to the league of American orchestras, only 2% of players are black, and African American people are scattered in and out of orchestras Miles Davis wrote at Julliard while studying trumpet then gave up no white orchestra was going to hire a little black motherfucker like me he also mentioned black people played jazz and the blues was because they often had to pick cotton An explanation why African Americans in jazz don’t play classical music is because blacks formed their own high forms of art and the talent that might have dominated contemporary music elsewhere instead they used classical training to add new dimensions to jazz and pop blacks of today look at classical music as intense and meant for other people classical music has become a heterogeneous culture since Anderson sang at the Washington Monument Barak Obama has a specific taste for classical music (keeping in mind he is an AfricanAmerican president) Anderson died in 1993 at 96 her autobiography reflects other experiences she encountered of great importance other than performing at the Washington Monument Chapter 16 Marlboro College in Vermont (acts as a finishing school for gifted young performers) Uchida from the Vietnam area) (a gifted pianist) follows a routine she stops at the college coffee shop she spent her hears in Vienna in 1961 At 12, she moved to London which remains her home her summers at Marlboro has added to American vocabulary many musicians all over the world have connections with Marlboro, (ex Julliard) After staying at Marlboro, people get a sense of culture and know what means to be a real musician is ultimately Marlboro is about the concept of time, time to rehearse and time to give performances, time can also have a tendency to speed up or slow down Uchida practiced in her dorm room for several hours she practices classical works as Mozart is her favorite composer this led to performances at Carnegie Hall The college is open from Sept to May Rudolf Serkin still haunts the campus he spent hours at a time practicing scales and music works mainly in piano born in 1903 in Bohemia, first displayed talent when he heard his sister playing the piano At 9 he went to study piano in Vienna under the influence of Eugine Schwartzwald that led to following Arnold Schuenberg with who he studied composition the two men were influenced by private music performances which tried to break commercial music culture around the world Serkin eventually came to America after the rise of Hitler and was fairly successful with his music but did not become a superstar Yo Yo Ma and Emmanuel Ax are two classical composers who have vastly successful while staying at Marbarlo Yo Yo would force to make changes while performances to make them exactly what the score asked for (ex don’t arpeggiate a chord, play it fully) Most young musicians who get accepted at Marlboro usually stay there 2 or three consecutive summers and hundreds audition for few openings in the music college a certain technical excellence and emotional reality (its ultimately called musicality) Most members are exceptionally good but lack creativity and vice versa The golden age of European culture dominates throughout the college rehearsals matter more than performances th many of the performers talk of (ex how to play a string of 8 a run of 3 and 3 and 2? ) persistency id important here even singing in another language quickly gave away it might be French instead of Italian Marlboro summers usually end on Sundays in August with a custom performance of Beethoven’s choral fantasy for piano, chorus and orchestra Beethoven wrote it in 1808 performances are always packed and full of musicians, teachers, neighbors, family and friends Marlboro represents migration tradition across continents to new generations of adolescent and USA kids Chapter 18 People were surprised to hear Bob Dyllan was still playing on the road in 1998 dead heads of the younger crowd are a big part in his shows one of them do you have to understand shakesphere to be in London the same was true for Dyllan among the large crowd of people 3x his age do you have to be older to understand his work?) Dyllan sometimes changes songs during performances to stir up the audience he sometimes write new melodies for old songs and sometimes transposes lyrics into another set of lyrics in a song during his performances he is known to be an erratic composer and always writing you can almost hear him thinking through songs he performs (there may be wrong notes but never a wrong chord) the voice that people knew from Dylan (in the generation 60’s they knew of him) was soon disappearing Dylan may explain the songs best through performances and singing them Dylan wrote songs in the 60’s that had meaning and messages Dylan composes his song and follows word choice, rhythm, and structured rhyme Aiden Days Jokerman analyzes lines from Dyllan’s songs and discovers they are primal elements towards the Mona Lisa as gender difference gets confused these lyrics are as follows “ see the primitive flower wall freeze, when the jellyfaced woman all sneeze, hear the one with the moustache say geeze, I can’t find my knees”, Dyllan was famous before he was 21 as a function of energy from one genre to another in folk, blues, country and rock Dyllan mainly played rock and electric blues in the 60’s he soon discovered you can only be famous for one thing at a time some of Dyllan’s song were written about life events (past and present) and some were written before they even began (which he did not know about) one way that he keeps people interested in these songs is the use of repetition in and between songs, his structure is verse, refrain, verse, refrain his resolution to chords come slightly later once they are presented over Dyllan started to write his lyrics as if not actually happening but made the crowd think ex) the ship is fading away in the horizon (is it sinking or not?) music critics approach him as a textual rather than music phenomena due to the meaning and suggestion in and through his lyrics he prefers the younger dead head crowd he was born in Duluth MN in 1941 he does not need to speak at concerts to meaning of songs (people just have to listen to the message) in his music, the sound of music gives meaning ex )a low sounding chord gives meaning to sad and depressing lyrics the music makes you forget the lyrics but critics disagree as the music should be as important as the lyrics th still his chord choice represents the baroque image in all its complexity like a G Major to Eb Major 7 he also has a niche for enjambment end rhyme (this is for the ear not the eye) he often rewrites lyrics to a song to give it more meaning, this can stir up a crowd, fan base or to critics if Dyllan cannot sing in a low register he plays low notes or a chord on his guitar to convey them to the audience, from this he cannot be a public star because he can’t control his image Chapter 19 Lorraine died at 56 in 2006 not even a household name shy for being interviewed according to the author she was the most incredible singer he’d ever met and saw grew up in San Francisco and studied violin she took up fulltime singing in the 1908’s she delivered sheer power she fit uneasy into the classical mainstream she loved all types of music her voice was true and rich in pitch her primary gift was for phrasing the vowels are very pure this is sometimes lost in classical music her volume control was also well accomplished Lliebertson began to write music with her husband in mind as she was married in 1997 this is very personal music (in opinion, her vocals sound in a way to the romantic side of Emily Dickenson’s poetry) Chapter 20 The symphonies of Brahms has meaning but are often overcome by feelings and memories of the composer he is a complicated composer and most purely classical of composers and never wrote an opera dominated the age of academic music the most companionable of composer Brhams came from a humble background, born in 183, made money by playing piano at bars and taverns the young Brahms had a fertile and vivid imagination he studied and played piano frequently with Robert Schuman, Schuman gave Brahms confidence in his musical career several years later, Schuman died of syphillus years later he composed a sonata for 2 pianos which became symphony in d minor (which gave images of Schuman’s death) Brahms gift to the human race is late night consolation and composition his works started to take shape in recognition of people and in memory of others he composes using Bach as influence but makes his works better ex) Bach goes from c major to a minor, Brahms goes from c major to f# minor to a minor he started to study the works of Schubert Brahms also started to study rhythm this led to combining dances to piano as example, it’s as if he tried to create tension, he music started to be more youthful as the years went by, his earlier works were academic and later works said to be fantastic he did not conform to social type Wagner and Brahms grew different in romantic music as Wagner the impressionistic Brahms futuristic Brahms is one of the leading pianists in his time Composers often gain technique as they get older and the youth remain at low level the youth make it harder for classical composers to show true art form (Verdi is an example as he controlled the opera genre) Brahms died of liver cancer in 1867 his late works remain personal he thought he drew a line in future music but he was wrong when he met Gustav Mahler, he said “music no more has a beginning than an end” although Brahms did mark the end of a certain line in music the music began to take 20 century form and dialect(s) Brahms remains to be a very emotional and relate composer (ex violins in high register represent sad memories or low horns give memory to a sleepy dog this relates similar to JL Adams when he hears percussion instruments in an exploding volcano in Alaska
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