Principles of Human Nutrition Chapter 1 Notes
Principles of Human Nutrition Chapter 1 Notes Nutrition 2030-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Hoover on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Nutrition 2030-001 at Clemson University taught by Deborah Ann Hutcheon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Principles of Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/13/16
Nutrition 1/13/16 10:23 AM What is Health? • World Health Organization defines health as “A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity” • This definition includes: o Physical Health: efficient body functioning o Intellectual Health: use of intellectual abilities o Emotional Health: ability to control emotions o Social Health: interactions and relationships with others o Spiritual Health: belief in existence of life and faith • Health can also be defined as the science of nutrients and other substances in foods, their actions in the body and their relationship to health Nutrients • We have 6 main types of nutrients that fall under 2 categories o Macronutrients § Carbohydrates § Protein § Lipids o Micronutrients § Water § Minerals § Vitamins • We also divide the nutrients as organic and inorganic. We define a nutrient as organic if it contains carbon o Carbohydrates – organic (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) o Protein – organic (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen) o Lipids – organic (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) o Vitamins – organic (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen) o Minerals – inorganic (single elements) o Water – inorganic (hydrogen, oxygen) • Our body makeup is divided into these nutrients o Water makes up anywhere from 60 to 70% of our body o Fat makes up anywhere from 15 to 25% of our body o Protein makes up relatively 15% of our body o Minerals make up relatively 12% of our body • How we measure the energy in our food is called calories o Calories In > Calories Out = Weight Gain o Calories In < Calories Out = Weight Loss o Calories In = Calories Out = Weight Maintenance • Nutrients and How Much Energy They Yield o Carbohydrates and Protein yield 4kcal/gram o Fat yields 9kcal/gram o Alcohol yields 7kcal/gram o Water, Vitamins, and Minerals yield 0kcal/gram o Dietary Reference Intakes • Set of nutrient intake values • Provide requirement recommendations for healthy groups/individuals • Used as a guide to plan and assess diets for healthy people to… o Prevent nutrient deficiency o Prevent chronic disease o Prevent over consumption • DRI’s that refer to nutrient consumption o Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the average daily intake level estimated to meet the needs of half (50%) of the people in a certain group o Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the average daily intake level estimated to meet the needs of most (97-98%) of the people in a certain group; aim for this o Adequate Intake (AI) is the average daily intake level assumed to be adequate; this is used when EAR cannot be determined o Tolerable Upper Level Intake (UL) is the highest average daily intake level likely to pose no health risks • DRI’s that refer to energy o Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) is the recommended range of carbs, fat and protein intake expressed as a total percent of energy’ o Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) is the average daily energy intake predicted to meet the needs of healthy adults o As a general guideline § Carbohydrates are about 45 – 65% of our energy percentage § Fat is about 20 – 35% of our energy percentage § Protein is about 10 – 35% of our energy percentage § Nutrient Dense Vs. Energy Dense vs. Empty Kcal Foods • Nutrient Dense – the healthiest possible versions of our food. Refers to the untouched, organic forms of our food such as fruits and veggies, meat, seafood, nuts and seeds, organic dairy. • Energy Dense – food transformed from its original form, such as pizza, hamburgers, chips. Use caution when eating these, as they provide energy but much more calories • Empty Kcal - food that has little to no nutritional value, such as soda, donuts, milkshakes • Think of all these categories as a traffic light o Green – Nutrient Dense food, healthiest possible category o Yellow – Energy Dense food, can be healthy but use caution o Red – Empty Kcal food, has no nutritional value o Obesity • Body Mass Index is the classification tools we use to determine healthy weight classes o Underweight - <18.5 kg/m2 o Normal Weight – 18.5 – 24.9 kg/m2 o Overweight – 25 – 29.9 kg/m2 o Obesity (Class 1) – 30 – 34.9 kg/m2 o Obesity (Class 2) – 35 – 39.9 kg/m2 o Extreme Obesity (Class 3) – +40 kg/m2 • The equation we use to determine BMI is o Weight in lbs/(Height in inchers)^2 * 703 o For example, I weigh 110 lbs and I’m 63 inches tall § My BMI is 19.48 so I fall under the category of Normal Weight • Diseases often associated with obesity o Type 2 Diabetes o Hypertension o Dyslipidemia o Heart Disease o Stroke o Certain Cancers o Infertility o Sleep Apnea o Gallbladder Disease o Osteoarthritis
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