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Notes for Mexican American Studies 160D2

by: juan gomez

Notes for Mexican American Studies 160D2 MAS 160A1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > MAS 160A1 > Notes for Mexican American Studies 160D2
juan gomez
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notes for first week 01-13-2016
MAS160A1 American Indian Medicine and Wellness
Antonio L. Estrada
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by juan gomez on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MAS 160A1 at University of Arizona taught by Antonio L. Estrada in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 150 views.


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Date Created: 01/13/16
MAS160A1  Native American Origins o How did the first people get to the Americas?  Many members of Native American trib  es have very different ideas about the origins of their people;  Each native American tribe has their own creation story, or some oral histoy, of how the world and their tribe came into being;  These stories vary between the 566 federally recognized tribes, yet some are similar to one another o Hopi Creation Story:  In the beginning, there was only the creator, Tawa.  All else was endless space  There was no beginning and no end, no time, no shape, no life…  Only an immeasurable void that had its beginning and end , time, shape, and life in the mind of Tawa the creator o The Creation of Mankind:  Spider Woman gathered earth in four colors – yellow, red, white, and black – and mixed them with her saliva; molded them, and covered them with her white-substance cape which was the creative wisdom itself;  She sang the Creation Song over them, and when she uncovered them, they were human beings in male form;  She then created four other beings, female partners, for the four male beings;  The time of the dark purple light; the first phase of the dawn of Creation, which reveals the mystery of mankind’s creation;  The time of the yellow light; the second phase of the dawn f Creation, when the breath of life entered mankind  The time of the red light; the third phase of the dawn of Creation, when mankind, fully formed, proudly faced the Creator and was filled with warmth and love  The people were given speech, a different language to each color, with respect for each other’s difference;  They were given wisdom and the power to reproduce and multiply;  But they were also told to respect and love the Creator at all times – and to remember and observe the three phases of your Creation:  The time of the three lights – the dark purple, the yellow, and the red reveal the mystery, the breath of life, and the warmth of love. o The Four Worlds  Tokpela : The First World  Means “Endless Space;”  Its direction was West;  Its color Yellow  Its mineral Gold  It ended by fire.  Tokpa : The Second World  Means “Dark Midnight;”  Its direction was South;  Its color blue;  Its mineral Silver;  It ended by spinning out of control and froze into solid ice in the coldness of space  Kuskurza : The Third world  An ancient name with no clear modern meaning;  Its direction was East  Its color Red  Its mineral Copper  It was destroyed by water  Tuwaquachi : The Fourth World  Means “ World Complete;”  Its direction was North;  Its color was Yellowish-white;  Its mineral was called sikyapala (Sulfur or Uranium)  It is the world we now inhabit o The Four Migrations  There were also four migrations in the Fourth World:  Every Clan had to make four directional migrations before they could arrive at their common, permanent home;  All must go to the ends of the land – west, south, east and north in each direction, until the land meets the sea, and back again;  They did this for purification o Native American Origins  What do Archeologists say?  The most widely accepted theory is that humans crossed to the Americas, into what is now Alaska and Canada, via a land bridge called Beringia  This land bridge was formed, linking Asia to North America, during the ice age more than 12,000 years ago when the vast amount of ice on the land increased enough to lower the level of the ocean, thereby exposing this bridge of land and ice  More recently, a new theory has arisen based on new evidence that has led many archeologists to believe that some people migrated from Asia, and even the Pacific Islands, to the Americas via the Pacific coast of North and South America  Archeologists believe that these people made this migration using boats to travel along the coastline, so that they could stop on land periodically, and occasionally they would settle along the coast;  Some theories even suggest that groups of people may have crossed the Pacific to the Americas from islands in the South Pacific  In both the case of the land bridge route and the coastal route, the migration of the first people to the Americas should be viewed as a series of migrations that took place over thousands and thousands of years;  Archeologists estimate the first people arrived in the Americas from 12,000 to 30,000 years ago  Carbon dating of artifacts found throughout the Americas has shown that they vary widely in their age, which may be an indication that different group of people migrated to and inhabited different areas of North and South America at different times  What do DNA Scientists say?  A complication in studying Native American genetic history is admixture with European and African immigrants since 1492;  Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow;  Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that are called ‘First American’ ;  Speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow  The intial peopling of the Americas followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America


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