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Med Terms!

by: Katelyn Stolt
Katelyn Stolt
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About this Document

Summary of Chapter 5
Medical Terminology
Elizabeth J Aschwege
Class Notes
Medical terminology




Popular in Medical Terminology

Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Stolt on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 19316 - AHS 100 - 02 at Grand Valley State University taught by Elizabeth J Aschwege in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Medical Terminology in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Grand Valley State University.

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Date Created: 01/13/16
Medical T erminology Chapter 5: Gastrointestinal tract: begins with the mouth and ends with the anus. Four Functions: Ingestion: Complex food material is taken into the mouth Digestion: breaking down of food, mechanically and physically Absorption: digest food passes through the lining cells or epithelium of the small intestine and into the blood stream Elimination:: elimination of the solid waste materials that cannot be absorbed into the bloodstream Oral Cavity: Cheeks: form the walls of the oval shaped oral cavity Lips: surround the opening to the oral cavity Hard palate: forms the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth and the muscular soft plate lies posterior to it Rugae: irregular ridges in the mucous membrane covering the anterior portion of the hard plate Uvula: a small soft tissue projection that hangs from the soft palate, aiding in production of speech Tongue: extends across the floor of the oral cavity and muscles attach it to the lower jawbone. Mastication: chewing Deglutition: swallowing Papillae: small raised areas on the tongue, contain taste buds Tonsils: masses of lymphatic tissue located in depressions of the mucous membranes Gums: fleshy tissue surrounding sockets of the teeth Teeth: Crown: shows above the gum line Root: lies within the bony tooth socket Enamel: protects the tooth Dentin: the main substance of the tooth, beneath the enamel and extends through the crown Cementum: covers, protects, supports the dentin in the root Periodontal membrane: surrounds the cementum and holds the tooth in place in the tooth socket Pulp: fills the center of the tooth (root canal) Salivary glands: (parotid, submandibular, sublingual) three pairs surround empty into the oral cavity, producing saliva Pharynx: Pharynx: muscular tube about 5 inches long, lined with a mucous membrane Esophagus: 9-10 inch muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach Peristalsis: involuntary, progressive, rhythmic contraction of a muscles in the wall of the esophagus Bolus: mass of food Stomach: Three main parts: fundus (upper portion), body (middle section), antrum (lower portion) Sphincters: control openings into and leading out of the stomach Lower esophageal sphincter: relaxes and contracts to move food from the esophagus into the stomach Pyloric sphincter: allows food to leave the stomach when it is ready Rugae: folds in the mucous membrane lining the stomach Pepsin: enzyme that begins digestion of proteins Small Intestine: Small intestine (small bowel): extends for 20 feet from the pyloric sphincter to the first part of the large intestine. Three parts: Duodenum: 1 foot long. It receives food from the stomach as well as bile from the liver and gallbladder and pancreatic juice from the pancreas Jejunum: about 8 feet long. Ileum: 11 feet long Villi: line the walls of the small intestine Large Intestine: Large intestine: extends from the end of the ileum to the anus. Three parts: Cecum: a pouch on the right side that connects to the ileum at the ileocecal valve (sphincter) Appendix: hands from cecum, no clear function Colon: 5 feet long, four named segments Ascending: extends from the cecum to the undersurface of the liver and to the left Transverse: passes horizontally to the left towards the spleen and turns downward Descending colon: transverse turns into descending Sigmoid: shaped like an S, begins at the distal end of the descending colon and leads into the rectum. Rectum: terminates into the lower opening of the gastrointestinal tract, the anus. Defecation: the expulsion or passage of feces from the body through the anus. Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas: Liver: located in the RUQ of the abdomen, manufactures a thick, orange-black, sometimes greenish fluid called bile Bilirubin: pigment produced from the breakdown of the hemoglobin during normal red blood cell destruction Jaundice: (hyperbilirubinemia) yellow coloration of the skin, whites of the eyes, and mucus membrane caused by an inability to secrete bilirubin. Hepatic duct: liver continuously releases bile and travels through it Cystic duct: leads to the gallbladder Gallbladder: a pear shaped sac under the liver which stores and concentrates the bile for later use Common bile duct: when the gallbladder contracts, it forces the bile of the cystic duct into here Pancreas: secretes pancreatic juices (enzymes) that are released into the pancreatic duct which joins with the common bile duct just as it enters the duodenum. Portal vein: brings blood to the liver from the intestines Pancreas: both an exocrine and an endocrine organ, producing things like amylase to digest starch, lipase to digest fat and the protease to digest proteins. Also it secretes insulin Combining Forms Parts of the Body: An/o: anus Cholecyst/o: gallbladder Append/o: appendix Choledoch/o: common, bile duct Bucc/o: cheek Col/o: bolon Cec/o: cecum Colon/o: colon Celi/o: belly, abdomen Dent/i: tooth Cheil/o: lip Duoden/o: duodenum Enter/o: intestines, usually small Odont/o: tooth intestine Or/o: mouth Esophag/o: esophagus Palat/o: palate Faci/o: face Pancreat/o: pancreas Gastr/o: stomach Peritone/o: peritoneum Gingiv/o: gums Pharyng/o: throat Gloss/o: tongue Proct/o: anus and rectum Hepat/o: liver Pylor/o: pyloric sphincter Ile/o: ileum Rect/o: rectum Jejun/o: jejunum Sialaden/o: salivary gland Labi/o: lip Sigmoid/o: sigmoid colon Lapar/o: abdomen Stomat/o: mouth Lingu/o: tongue Uvul/o: uvula Mandibul/o: lower jaw, mandible Combining Forms: Substances amyl/o: starch glycogen/o: glycogen, animal starch bil/i: gall, bile lip/o: fat, lipid bilirubin/o: bilirubin (bile pigment) lith/o: stone chol/e: gall, bile prote/o: protein chlorhydr/o: hydrochloric acid py/o: pus gluc/o: sugar sial/o: saliva, salivary glyc/o: sugar steat/o: fat Suffixes: -ase: enzyme -chezia: defection, elimation of wastes -iasis: abnormal condition -prandial: meal Pathology of the Digestive System: Anorexia: lack of appetite Ascites: abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen Borborygmus: rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestional tract Constipation: difficulty in passing stools Diarrhea: frequent passage of loose, watery stools Dysphagia: difficulty in swallowing Eructation: gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth Flatus: gas expelled through the anus Hematochezia: passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum Jaundice: (icterus) yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood Melena: black tarry stool; feces containing digested blood Nausea: unpleasant sensation in the stomach associated with a tendency to vomit Steatorrhea: fat in the feces; frothy, foul smelling fecal matter Pathologic Conditions: Aphthous stomatitis: inflammation of the mouth, with small painful ulcers Dental caries: tooth decay Herpetic stomatitis: inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpes virus Oral leukoplakia: white plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth Periodontal disease: inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone Achalasia: failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax Esophageal cancer: malignant tumor of the esophagus Esophageal varices: swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus Gastric cancer: malignant tumor of the stomach Gastro esophageal reflux disease: solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach Hernia: protrusion of an organ or part through the tissues and muscles normally containing it. Peptic ulcer: open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum Anal fistula: abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus Colonic polyps: polyps (benign growths) protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon Colorectal cancer: adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum, or both Crohn Disease: chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract Diverticulosis: abnormal outpouchings (diverticula) in the intestinal wall of the colon Dysentery: painful, inflamed intestines commonly caused by bacterial infection Hemorrhoids: swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region Ileus: loss of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines Inflammatory bowel disease: inflammation of the colon and small intestine Intussusception: telescoping of the intestines Irritable bowel syndrome: Group of GI symptoms but without abnormalities in the intestines (colon) Ulcerative colitis: chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers Volvulus: twisting of the intestine on itself Cholelithiasis: gallstones in the bladder Pancreatic cancer: malignant tumor of the pancreas Pancreatitis: inflammation of the pancreas Viral hepatitis: inflammation of the liver caused by a virus `


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