Cognitive Psychology: Week One
Cognitive Psychology: Week One Psyc 3330
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaya Brown on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3330 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/13/16
Chapter 1 What is cognitive Psych? - Study of how people learn, structure, store, and use knowledge - Study of attention, perception, memory, psycholinguistics, decision-making, and other higher mental processes - Everyday mental activities History - Philosopher have pondered cognition (Plato, Aristotle, Locke, etc. - Many of the first KNOWN scientific studies in psychology were cognition E.g., Donder (1898), Ebbinghaus (1885), Wundt (the first to create AND USE a psychology lab - Behaviorism (early 1900s) Attempted to shift psychology to the study of observable behavior and stimulus-response association Led to the decline in cognitive psychology - Decline of behaviorism (1945-1970) Tolman (1948) – Spatial behavior due to “cognitive maps” rather than learned sequences of behavior Chomsky (1959)- language learning is NOT a matter of reinforcement and punishment, as claimed by Skinners Verbal Behavior o kids say things that they’ve have never heard, use incorrect grammar, etc. Brelands Misbehavior od Organisms (1961) o Behavior reflects evolution -1950s Development of ‘thinking machines” (computers) and the processing approach First text on cognitive psychology (Neisser 1967) -1980s Cognitive approach becomes dominant in most areas of psychology Development of Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Model and cognitive neuroscience Gradual replacement of IP (information processing) approach with ideas of embodied cognition, PDP models, and evolution psychology -IP Approach Generally uses a (serial) computer analogy & o Serial processing, limited capacity ‘CPU’, output of one series as the input for the next Goal: identify and analyze sequence of distinct step processes Methods and Approach: Reaction Time (RT) - RT- common story in cognitive psychology (Ex: how fast could one hot the space bar when a red circle comes up on the screen) - A difference in RT reflects a difference in cognitive processing - Time required for a articular process can be estimated by adding that process to a task and marking increase in RT (Donders’ subtraction method) Mental tasks can be measured - Simple RT vs. Choice RT: choice reaction time measures the response to 2 or more different things - Donders (1868): predicted choice RT would be longer than simple choice b/c there is one extra step (the choice) - Experiment: Ask a series of questions Does a vulture have wings? Does a robin have wings? How long was the RT? RT? Why does it take longer to answer for the vulture? ~ Priming effect: the first question already had us thinking about birds, wings etc. However, if we separate the questions so there is no priming effect it is still longer for vultures. Why? o It deals with how we organize things in our brains. Robins are more common and therefore more important in our brain than vultures 5 Key Distinctions 1. Serial vs Parallel processing Serial: doing one thing at a time vs. processing: doing more than one thing at a time Can be difficult to differentiate (task-switch vs. simultaneous) o May appear to do things at the same time but actually switching rapidly between the tasks 2. Intentional (fully conscious) vs. Automatic Process Playing an oboe vs. reading a word; a new driver vs. an experienced driver 3. Data- Driven (bottom-up) vs. conceptually driven (top-down) processing Bottom-up: determined by sensory processes Top-down: understanding or perception is guided by stored knowledge (memory) o We can never identify anything as strictly one or the other: always incorporates both Ex: reading is second nature but if something is misspelled we can identify what the word is 4. Implicit (hidden) vs. Explicit knowledge Explicit knowledge: knowledge that can be easily verbalized We know more than we can describe or explain o Ex: you cannot accurately explain to someone how to turn a corner on a bike, but you fully know how to do that Much procedural knowledge is implicit 5. Cognition vs. Metacognition Metacognition- knowledge about cognition including awareness, understanding, and/or monitoring of ones own cognitive state and cognitive activities o Ex: knowing whether or not you have a bad sense of direction.. if so rely more on GPS, maps, etc.
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