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Abnormal Psychology- Week 1

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by: Selene McConachy

Abnormal Psychology- Week 1

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Selene McConachy
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About this Document

These notes cover the lectures on chapters 1 and 2 of Abnormal Psychology (9th Edition).
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Joy
Class Notes
Abnormal psychology, Psychology




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"I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and Selene delivered. Shoutout Selene, I won't forget!"
Bette Hessel

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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Selene McConachy on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Denver taught by Dr. Joy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.


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I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and Selene delivered. Shoutout Selene, I won't forget!

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Date Created: 01/13/16
Abnormal Psychology: Past and Present  Friday, January 8, 2016  2:03 PM  1. What is abnormal psychology?  1. Scientific study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe, predict, explain, and  change abnormal patterns of functioning  2. What is psychological abnormality?  1. Four Ds  1. Deviance  1. Behaviors, thoughts, and emotions that differ markedly from a  society's ideas about proper functioning/social norms  1. EX: Drinking behavior (college)  2. Distress  1. Behavior, ideas, or emotions usually have to cause distress before  they can be labeled abnormal  1. EX: Fatigue, Acne, change in appetite, increase in  agitation, College students during finals week  3. Dysfunction  1. Interferes with daily functioning  1. EX: Fangirling, obsessing about different forms of media  4. Danger  1. Abnormal behavior may become dangerous to oneself or others  1. May be consistently careless, hostile, or confused  1. EX: Practicing extreme sports  1. Abnormality is relative (see examples  above)  3. What is treatment?  1. Treatment or therapy is a procedure designed to change abnormal behavior into  more normal behavior  1. Sufferer seeks healer  2. Trained, socially accepted healer is chosen  3. Series of contacts between the healer and the sufferer change "abnormal"  functioning to "normal" functioning  4. Stats  1. 30% adults, 19% children display serious psychological disturbances and are in  need of clinical treatment  2. Difficulty coping at various times  5. Ancient Vies and Treatments  1. Work of evil spirits  2. Treatment: trephination (Cutting holes into the skill to allow demons to escape)  and exorcism  3. Greek and Roman Views and Treatments  1. 500 BC to 500 AD  1. Hippocrates believed and taught that illnesses had natural causes  1. Unbalance of four fluids or humors  2. Treatment: rebalance  1. Warm baths, bloodletting, etc.  6. Europe in the Middle Ages: Demonology Returns  1. 500­1350 AD  2. Church rejected scientific forms of investigation  1. Demonology reemerges  7. The Renaissance and the Rise of Asylums  1. 1400­1700 AD  2. Demonological views decline  3. Mind was as susceptible to sickness as body; care improves through humane  and loving treatment of people with mental disorders  1. Rise of asylums  8. Nineteenth Century: Reform and Moral Treatment  1. As 1800 approached, treatment improved  1. Moral guidance and humane and respectful techniques  2. Moral treatment movement started to reverse  1. Long­term hospitalization returned  1. Lack of funding, overcrowding, lack of understanding, lacking  treatment methods  9. Early Twentieth Century: Dual Perspectives  1. Late 1800s  1. Somatogenic Perspective  1. Abnormal functioning stems from physical causes  1. Biological approaches yielded mostly disappointing results  throughout the first half of the twentieth century  1. In 1950s number of effective medications were  finally discovered  1. Antipsychotic drugs, antidepressant drugs,  antianxiety drugs  1. Led to drastic deinstitutionalization  and rise in outpatient care  1. Pros: Less abuse, greater  acceptance, health  improvement  2. Cons: Neglect (those who  can't afford it), Many become  homeless, end up in criminal  justice system, or with  relatives without training  (cause a strain)  2. Psychogenic  1. Abnormal functioning has psychological causes  1. Hypnotism  2. Freud/ outpatient therapy  1. Psychoanalytic theory and treatment  10. Current Trends  1. 43% people surveyed believe people bring mental disorders upon themselves  2. 35% mental health disorders are caused by sinful behavior  11. Outpatient care: primary mode of treatment  1. Nearly 1 in 6 adults in the US receives treatment for psychological disorders in  the course of a year, the majority for fewer than 5 sessions  2. Development of programs devoted exclusively to one kind of psychological  problem  12. Disorder Prevention and Health Promotion  1. Growing emphasis on preventing disorders and promoting mental health  1. Community mental health approach has given rise to the prevention  movement  1. Today's programs:  1. correct social conditions  2. Help individuals at risk for developing disorders  2. Energized by positive psychology movement  13. Leading Theories and Professions  1. Psychoanalytic: Freud, Id, Ego, Superego, Iceberg,  2. Biological: Neurotransmitters, hormones, two­factor theory, Phineas Gage,  genes, medication, neurons  3. Behavioral: Skinner, pigeons, Watson, Pavlov, dogs  4. Cognitive: schema theory, appraisal theory, Phineas Gage, Piaget  5. Humanistic­Existential: life and death, meaning of life, Maslow, Rogers  6. Sociocultural: altruism, input output group, bystander, society, Brofenbrenner                                   Research In Abnormal Psychology  Friday, January 8, 2016  2:57 PM  1. Research  1. Systematic search for facts through the use of careful observations and  investigations  1. Clinical researchers must consider different cultural backgrounds, races,  and genders of the people they study  2. Always ensure rights of their research participants, both human and  animal, are not violated  2. What is a case study?  1. Very detailed study of one particular case of group  1. Doesn't understand a larger community, only the individual  3. What is a correlation?  1. Relationship, how one variable relates to another (or multiple variables in  relation to multiple others)  1. Degree to which events or characteristics vary with each other  1. EX: Are stress and onset of mental disorders related? Are  family conflict and mental disorders related?  2. Positive, negative, and unrelated (no slope)  1. Magnitude (strength of correlation is also important  1. High magnitude, low magnitude  2. Advantages  1. Can generalize findings  2. Can repeat (replicate) studies on other samples  3. Disadvantages  1. Results describe but do not explain a relationship  1. Results say nothing about causation  2. Correlation is not causation  4. Experimental Method  1. Variable is manipulated and the manipulation's effect on another variable  is observed  1. Manipulated = independent  2. Observed =  dependent  1. EX: Does factor X cause a disorder? Is treatment X more  helpful that no treatment at all?  2. Need (to guard against confounds):  1. Control group  1. Group of research participants who are not exposed to the  independent variable, experience is similar to that of the  experimental group  2. Random assignment  1. Ensures every participant in the experiment is as likely to  be placed in one group as another  1. EX: drawing names out of a hat  3. Blind design  1. Participants are unaware of which group they're in  2. "Double­Blind design"  1. Researchers are also unaware  5. Alternative Experimental Designs  1. Do not meet the three criteria  1. Quasi­experimental or mixed design  1. Investigators do not randomly assign participants to groups  but make use of groups that already exist  1. EX: Children with history of abuse  2. Natural experiments  1. Nature manipulates independent variable and  experimenter observes effects  1. EX: Observe what happens after an earthquake  (why are some more resilient after disaster than  others?)  3. Analogue experiments  1. Allow investigators to manipulate independent variable  while avoiding ethical and practical limitations  1. Induce laboratory subjects to behave in ways that  seem to resemble real life  1. EX: Milgram Experiments (not permitted to  be repeated due to ethical concerns)  4. Single­Subject Experiment  1. Single participant is observed both before and after  manipulation of independent variable     Video: Ethics in Human Research: Violating One's Privacy?   


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