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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nia Gibson on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 349 at Syracuse University taught by C. DeCorse in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views.
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Date Created: 01/13/16
ANT 349 Archaeology Study of past human cultures. Most archaeologists are employed in cultural resource management. Indian Jones: The Quintessential Archaeologist Traditionally • White males (nonethnic) • University Professors Today • Majority in government and private sector Cultural Resource Management • Many minorities and women 2nd and 3rd generations of local scholars The Movie Archaeologist • “Cowboy Science” • Indiana Jones would get no tenure • More in common with 19th century Antiquarians than the archaeologists of the early 20th century The Origins of Archaeology • Emerged in western Europe in the 19th century • Colonized regions • 17th and 18th centuries: ‘Antiquaries’: Archaeologists more like treasure hunters • Focus on Antiquities of Classical Greece and Rome; Ancient Egypt; Neareast; Mesoamerica Giovanni Battista Belzoni (17781823) • Gun Battles, Tombs, and Treasures • Goes to Egypt to sell irrigation equipment (18151818) • Plays a major role of emergence of Egyptology • Ramses II • Abu Simbel • Not a trained archaeologist; interested in treasures Ramses II ‘Young Memnon’ • Dragged from Thebes to Alexandria Recurring Themes • Exotic Locations: Egypt, India, Africa, South Ameirca • Lost Civilizations and Tombs Archaeological Sites: • Sites which tell you the history of past human activity and traces of that activity • Pristine, undisturbed • “No one has been here in years!” The Find: Search and Retrieve: • “It Belongs in a museum!” • Legendary objects: The arc of the covenant, Sankara Stones, the Holy Grail, Crystal Skull • Supernatural:Curses and Warnings, Disturbed tombs, Mummies The Adventure • “Rescuing” Artifacts • Fight enemies • Save the world (from dangers unleashed by the archaeologists) Modern Archaeology • Raiders the Lost Ark Set in the 1930s • Archaeology emerged as scientific discipline in the 19th century Today archaeology is about answering questions • Origins of human kind • settlement of americans • reasons for domestication • rise of civilizations Research Design Research and planning before you dig!!! • Review of previous Work • What are your objectives? • PERMITS!! • How will you recover the relevant data? archaeological survey, excavation, archival research, specialized methods Field Work • Most sites and fossil localities located by fieldwork Archaeological Excavation: • ‘Scientific Diggin’ • Archaeology is destructive the site is destroyed in the process of excavation Excavation: • Systematic removal of soil • Grids and maps help to accurately record findings How deep do you dig? Vertical Excavation • Depth of excavation determined by the natural processes and human activities represented Horizontal Excavation • Exposure of larger areas one layer at a time • Reveal site and building plans; spatial organization; activity areas etc. Limitations of The Material Record Real Archaeology • Archaeological preservation often horrible! • “Finds” bits of broken pottery and other things Archaeological Preservation • Very little of the typical Stone Age tool kit from Scandinavia would be preserved Preservation caries: • Most mateiraldestroyed by time, nature, and human activity • Very small number of creatures are preserved for paleoanthropologists to find Kind Tutankhamum • Discovered by Howard Center in 1922 • Popular because his tomb was found intact. • The only one that was intact • Unique and exciting find. “Lucy” • Found in Ethiopia by Donald Johanson in1974; 40% complete Documentation! • Contest! The place where a fossil or artifact is found and all the associates materials: • How and why they are related? Data Recording Archaeological Interpretation • Reconstruction of the past: “What happened when” Archaeologists are interested in how and why it happened; Reconstructing trade in prehistoric societies When did bipedalism (walking upright) emerge? Theories • Theories answer “why”? • Theories always open to reevaluation in light of new discoveries and information Humans evolved in Africa • Africa will have earliest fossils human ancestors • Africa will have the earliest evidence of modern humans • Africa will have transitional forms of human ancestors • African genetic material will suggest longer period of mutations Archaeologists are sometimes reluctant to accept new theory or interpretation Rating System • Almost the real thing • Check you facts • bits of the past • tabloid archaeology • truly ghastly Todays Film: Relic Hunter; Etched in Stone (1999)
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