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BI 123, Week 1 Notes

by: Rachel Kasashima

BI 123, Week 1 Notes BI 123

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Biology > BI 123 > BI 123 Week 1 Notes
Rachel Kasashima
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Notes from Chapter 1. I wrote down all of the key terms from the textbook under the section they appeared in the textbook as well as some other information that I felt was important. I am by no mea...
Biology of Cancer
Dr. Kelly
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Kasashima on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BI 123 at University of Oregon taught by Dr. Kelly in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Biology of Cancer in Biology at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 01/13/16
Chapter 1: The Scope of the Cancer Problem Cancer's rise to prominence • In 1850,about 0.5% of deaths in the US were attributed to cancer. • mortality: The number of deaths from cancer during a specific time period. • mortality rate: The ratio of deaths of a specific type of cancer occurring in a population during a year to the number of individuals who were at risk of dying of the given cancer.Generally expressed as the number of deaths per 100,000 persons. • There has been a constant reduction in cancer mortality since the early 1900s. • incidence: The number of newly diagnosed cases of cancer during a specific time period. Trends in cancer mortality • infectious disease: Disease caused by an agent that is most often microscopic (viruses,bacteria,fungi and protozoa). • Death by infections disease has increased significantly since the mid-1800s. ⿞Examples of infectious diseases: ‣ Pneumonia ‣ Influenza ‣ Tuberculosis ‣ Intestinal and gastric infections ‣ Diptheria Mortality trends for specific cancers • PSA test: A blood test that measures the concentration of protein (prostate specific antigen) secreted by the prostate gland. • colonoscopy: Most commonly a vital examination of the inner lining of the colon by way of a flexible scope called a colonoscope. • Pap test: A screening technique in which cells scraped from the cervex are examined microscopically for abnormalities. • Cancer mortality rate trends are similar in both men and women. Trends in cancer incidence • incidence rate: The ratio of the number of new cancers of a specific type occurring in a population during a year to the number of individuals who were at risk for the given cancer.Generally expressed as the number of cancers per 100,000. Increasing age population • median age: The age at which half of all reported cases were older and half were younger. • The median age of a person diagnosed with cancer in the US is 67 years. • As the average age of the US population increases,so does the number of cancer diagnoses. Improvements in diagnostics • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),computed tomography (CT),positron emission tomography (PET). • Improved diagnostics --> more accurate diagnostics --> a perceived increase in some cancers. Lifestyle choices • Around 80% of all cancers are due to active choices made by us. Trends in cancer survival *Survival often does not mean cure. Staging of cancer • Local: cancer has not moved from its original site • Regional: cancer has spread within nearby tissue or to nearby lymph nodes: one of hundreds of small structures in the body that filter lymph (A fluid similar to blood but devoid of red blood cells that circulates throughout the body) and are sites of activation of cells of the immune system. • Distant: cancer has spread to distant organs,tissues,or lymph nodes. • Unstaged: at the time of diagnosis,the extent of cancer confinement was not known or could not be determined. • relative survival: The ratio of a cancer patient's chance of surviving a given time interval to that of an average cancer-free person of the same age and sex. 5-year survival • 5-year survival: The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive 5-years after they were diagnosed with or treated for cancer. How incidence (and mortality) rates are calculated • crude rate: The ratio of the number of people in which the event of interest (e.g.cancer incidence or death) happens in a specified time period to the size of the population who may experience this event during the same time period. • age adjusted rate: A statistical method allowing comparisons of populations that takes into account age- distribution differences between populations.


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