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BIO 2012 Genetics notes

by: Chris Bonty

BIO 2012 Genetics notes BIOL 2012

Marketplace > Biology > BIOL 2012 > BIO 2012 Genetics notes
Chris Bonty
Bethany Zolman

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About this Document

These notes cover all of chapter one, what was talked about in class Wednesday 1/20/2016, along with the recommendations and preview of our exam format Professor Zoleman gave us in class. These not...
Bethany Zolman
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chris Bonty on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2012 at a university taught by Bethany Zolman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views.


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Date Created: 01/13/16
Items mentioned in Class are highlighted in blue Genetics Notes Chapter 1 Genetics is a form of information science Seeking to understand genetic transmission at 3 levels Parent to offspring transmission genetics DNAGene action within and between cells molecular developmental genetics Over generations with in a population Populationevolutionary genetics Blending theory Genes blended how uids like paint mix Ex white red Pink and Tall Short MediumAverage height Genetics is 100 years old Gregor Mendel Austrian monk who discovered the laws of inheritance Cross pollinated inter mated different varieties of pea plants Studying rules of trait transmission from parents to offspring Cross results revealed disproved blending theory and formed a new one New theory Trait factors act like particles and are passed intact from one gen to next These particles ae now known as genes Proposed these plants contained Somatic cells Somatic cells Diploid cells of the plant body nonreproductive Gametes are sex cells and each parent contributes one copy of a gene Also discovered gene variants alleles and dominantrecessive traits 539quot F m quoti 7 Ettlijrly39 In quotan n 7 I r ea lamts h1g1 1113 l 2 11 H V l H V U Hr 3 H H m Iii1113 101515 Of39Bg nh Austria Ernm Czech chul39 li ruddy I rum in I m i E u i 3 w 1 3 1 V I Ham H j 7 TE I indie crimes pailimated w intennuted ti39 h icnl V41M1Hh r11 11 pt I mw x E 7 I J V quot r w v m39rp u nwrra 1 i quot 7 quot r u n In a n 1LT wMi r1 1 I r rimlents l mmlvcd moshing r 7 n I 1 wnq l 39fm 15 1136 9 Fig1W6 1 an hmc d prl39I l39Ijli tl than 111 M13 ilnyin MI 113 In 4 ME owe11 vgt Cline of Mendel 5 Bxpe i ma ita FIQ UHE 1 42 Grer W wfaslan Auqtriari rl39imrik writ fjmrxxxered The aws 7 gt r 39 i f 39 irii neritaznae iJarnrsg qu Hryhh Emrenm nif i 13th Twij game 1 copies FirSE ger39rerahon hybrid Second generatia n hybrids Eggs Bateson coined the term Genetics the study of inheritance Thomas H Morgan 1910 proved the Chromosome Theory fruit y experiment Genes are located on chromosomes Ronald Fisher 1918 insight on Multifactorial hypothesis TatumampBeade 1941 One gene one enzyme hypothesis Theres one gene that encodes for an n enzyme that makes certain traits Oswad Avery Colin MacLeod amp Maclyn McCarty 1944 Discovered DNA make up Found experimental data to prove physical nature of a gene is DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Used DNA from virulent bacteria to turn a nonvirulent strain into a virulent one lames WatsonampFrancis Crick 1953 Determined molecular structure of DNA DNA is 2 strands wound side by side forming a spiraled ladder double helix sides of the ladder are sugar and phosphate groups rungs of the ladder are base pairs A Adenine T Thymine G Guanine C Cytosine all facing the center and hydrogen bonded to the base across from it Adenine A is always double hydrogen bonded to Thymine T Guanine G is always triple hydrogen bonded to Cytosine C Bonding is based on the complementary shapes and charges of the bases 1958 Introduced quotCentral Dogmaquot Central Dogma Flow of genetic information with in cells DNA to RNA to Protein Crick thought Dogma meant hypothesis later realized it means accepted wout doubt Francois lacobamplacdues Monod 1961 Demonstrated regulatory elements in gene expression Regulatory Elements Turn genes either off or on DNA sequences which bind to regulatory proteins and become either activators or repressors Gene Expression What the gene does while off or on Scientist around the world 19611967 quotCracked the genetic codequot They deduced how a string of DNA nucleotides each with one of 4 different bases encodes for the set of 20 different amino acids Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins Discovered messenger molecule RNA ribonucleic acid which transports info RNA Transports info from DNA in nucleus to cytoplasm to synthesize proteins By 1967 Central Dogma of molecular biology was known Flowchart for info transmission in cells DNA Replication Process by which a copy of DNA is produced Transcription RNA synthesis from a DNA template mRNA Template for protein synthesis Translation sequencing amino acids to compose a protein Codon A set of 3 consecutive nucleotides in mRNA specifying an amino acid in a protein Not all RNA codes for Proteins Model Organism Species scientist assume what is learned will hold true for other species especially the closely related ones Suitable model organisms are small in expensive and easy to maintain Also have Short generation turnoverlife cycle Possess smaller genomes Easy to matecross and hopefully produce a large number of offspring DNA Polymerases Can make a copy of a single DNA strand by synthesizing complementary base sequences A s C s T s and G s Nucleases cut DNA molecules in speci c locations or degrade DNA into single nucleotides Ligases Join 2 DNA molecules together end to end Aso using other enzymes DNA can be labeled or tagged Can clone small segments of DNA molecules by inserting them into a host Ecoli where its polymerase can replicate it many times Transformation Inserting foreign DNA molecules into the genomes of other species Genetically Modi ed organism GMO Product of transformation Precision in transformation helps to prevent unwanted traits in these GMOs DNA Hybridization and its methods DNA sequencing Process used to decipher exact sequence of base pairs in a DNA molecule Genomics last 20yrs Study of structure and function of entire Genomes has revealed whole DNA sequences of genomes list of their genes catalogs of gene variants data on cell amp its tissue types gene expression and more Genetic variation Any difference between 2 copies of the same gene or DNA molecule Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms SNPs Each or a difference in the sequencing of base pairs De novo mutations Unique DNA variants that exist in a child but neither parent Point Mutations A change of one letter in the DNA code to another that can occur during DNA replication Know how to read family pedigrees Germline Special lineage of cells that divide to produce sex cells error can occur in division Weinberg s theory of older parents passing on new mutations was true particularly in males Quantitative Trait Locus QTL Mapping gene locus contribute quantitativelyin increments to variation for a trait Pale versus dark blue etc Ethylene Response Factors ERFs Encode regulatory proteins that bind to regulatory elements of other genes thus controlling expression DNA microarrays Factors powerful in shaping gene variants that occur in different human populations Pathogens ex malaria or small pox Local climate conditions including solar radiation temperature and a ude Diet ex amounts of meat grains dairy products and etc Adaptation to high Altitude Tibetan EPASl story Lactose tolerance agricultural OTCl story both are results of Darwinism In class notes subiect to change Genetics is a broad study scything in biology ts into genetics DNA and RNA discussion and how it ts into the cell Mendelian view and modern day genetics kind of fuse the two How changes in DNA can cause disease Group activity on the 1st day of thinking about genetics People were displaying behaviors categorized in genetics as early as SOOOBC crops breeding animals etc Gregor Mendel in 1865 pea plant test no clue what genetic material was 1953 Watson amp Crick double helix with ATCGs showing what base pairs 2001 Genome why we have traits help understand function Polymorphisms people are 99 alike De novo mutation Reference of multi gene trait versus single gene traits Height difference Genes that control cell elongation not purely genetic disease prenatal nourishment diet lifestyle etc Proteins involved in DNA repair affect the amount of DNA mutations expenenced highighted syllabus notes posted by Sam before class and there are practice problems in class Lots of drawing DNA maps 25 logical questions on exam Context of genetics means a lot Began in the history of genetics with Watson and crick Went from fundamental units to a continuous DNA molecule then polymers carrying instructions for DNA Transcribed regionprotein encoding region makes protein All cells carry same DNA but have many different functions regulate when genes are made into a protein Regulatory region 5 up and down stream Qualities of all cells regulatory transcribe region unique to kind of cell More than 25000 genes and 100000 proteins Space between gene genes called intro genetic space used to be called junk space Single genes possess exons expressed and introns edited within the cell Not all encoding proteins or genes possess the same orientation Unit for measuring DNA kb stands for kilo base sometimes use mega bases Mentioned chromosome structure in comparison to double helix Histones and nucleosome which is DNA wrapped by a histone chromatin is the beginning of a compact unit of DNA Genome is totality of all of the DNA of an individual Haploid 1 copy or Diploid 2 copies redundancy is a perk back up genes genome Dipoids are double helixes Karyotype of humans displays all of the chromosomes n23 2n46 for humans If there are 3 unique chromosomes n3 haploid 2n6 if observing diploid Did not nish chapter one in class and professor recommended reading through her power points


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