Anatomy and Physiology Notes 1/13/16
Anatomy and Physiology Notes 1/13/16 VS 3014
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to VS 3014 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Sharon Grace in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology in Animal Science and Zoology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 01/13/16
Anatomy and Physiology 1/13/16 Brachycephalic Dogs Brachycephalic syndrome -‐ -‐ Brachy means short -‐ Cephalo means head -‐ Brachycephalic therefore means short head, Ex: Bulldog Mesocephalic – average/medium/normal length for a nose and head Dosoceaphic – long length for nose and head Brachycephalic Airway Syndrome – respiratory problems ex: Bulldog -‐ Stenotic nares – small nostrils – limited amount of air able to enter -‐ Elongted soft palate – longer soft palate hangs down low and blocks air from entering the windpipe -‐ Hypoplastic trachea – under formed windpipe – trachea is too narrow -‐ Skin fold pyoderma – pus on skin – facial folds in the skin results in pus rolling into their eyes o Surgical correction: cut some of the soft palate and cut the extra skin off nares -‐ Persian cats are also an example of an animal with Brachycephalic Airway Syndrome Bone – living dynamic tissue -‐ Connective tissue – hardened or specialized tissue o Main fuction: bined and hold things together o Comes from the middle layer of skin – mesoderm o Examples: blood, adipose fat, tendons, ligaments, etc. -‐ Also an organ -‐ Collectively bones make up a system Endoderm – inner layer of tissue Mesoderm – middle layer of tissue Ectoderm – outer layer of tissue Bones as a living tissue: most dynamic of all living tissues/constantly changing -‐ Capable of healing itself (broken bone, cracked bone, infections), responds to stress (exercise), degenerates and dies (non-‐union facture where a fracture will not heal) o Degenerates because the bone is denied the nutrients – bone is supplied by blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerve trunks § Lymphatic vessels – pick up material that needs to be transported o Vessels enter by way of a nutrient artery a the nutrient foramen § Foramen – hole in the bone where the blood vessel goes § Nutrient artery – vessel entering the artery -‐ Medical term for a broken bone – FRACTURE o Hip – coxofermoral joint – ball and socket joint § Legg-‐Perfbes Disease – unhealthy bone because of damaged blood supply Lymphatic Vessel -‐ all over the body -‐ Fluid is in blood vessels and lymphatic vessel -‐ Function – to run parallel to the veins of the body and go back to the heart – return collected tissue fluid to the heart – recirculation -‐ Fluid is composed of blood cells and fluid collected by tissues -‐ Lympathic vascular system – o Arteriole – carries oxygenated blood o Venule – deoxygenated blood Bone made up of -‐ 50% water -‐ 2/3 Inoragnic mineral components (calcium and Phosphorous) o provides hardness -‐ 1/3 Organic (living) – connective tissues – resilience o Connective tissues made up of cells and matrix § Matrix is made up of fiber (collagen) and ground substance (jello between cells and fibers) § Cells – • osteoclast (cleans and heals), • osteoblasts (blasts – young or immature room for growing/expansion becomes an osteocyte), • osteocytes (cyte means cell), • progenitor cells (the cell that gives rise to the other cells -‐ Fuction: o Protection -‐ nervous system o rigidy and form – external appearance o levers – helps move/locomotion, defense, hunting prey § example: elbow joint a pivot point -‐ Tendon attaches musle to bone -‐ Ligament attaches bone to bone -‐ Medulla/ Medullary cavity – blood cells formed here – spongy bone o Bone Marrow § 3 cell lines § Erythrocytes – Erythro means red = red cell – carries oxygen to tissues and carries CO2 away from tissue § Leutkocytes – leutko means white = white cells – fighting infections § Platelets – blood clotting -‐ Ilium – Hip Bone – largest and most cranial bone in the pelvis o Used to collect bone marrow samples o Ileum – part of the small intestine – not the same Directional Terms -‐ humans are bipeds (two legs) so doesn’t always correlate with animals Four-‐legged creature terms: Dorsal – toward the backbone Ventral – toward the underside Cranial – toward the head Caudal – toward the tail Rostral – cranial direction – toward the nose Palmar – caudal surface of forelimb Plantar – caudal surface of hindlimb below the tarsus Medial – toward the midline Lateral – away form the midline Proximal – toward the point of origin Distal – away from the point of origin Superficial – more toward the surface Deep – more toward the inside Direction terms of planes Median plane – divides the body in half – mirror images Sagittal/paramedian plane – slightly off to one side or slightly off the midline – unequal divide Transverse plane – divides the body into a cranial and caudal halves – front and back half Frontal plane – divides the body into top and bottom halves – ventral and dorsal sides
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