Week 2 notes
Week 2 notes ARTH1001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Drake Lundstrom on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH1001 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Erin Hackmann in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see History of Art 1 in Art History at The University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 01/13/16
Week 2 Notes: Monday, 1/18/2016 Class cancelled for martin luther king day Wednesday, 1/20/2016 Lascaux Cave After it was opened up, there was rapid deterioration, from fungus and carbon dioxide from breath, among other things. For that reason, the caves where shut, and there was a replica of the cave made neary. Though no paint brushes where found in the cave, there were bones that appear to have been used to blow paint through, which would have helped the painters reach the ceiling that they painted on. The caves have also been painted over many times by many people, and that most likely, the act of painting was more important to the result. They would also use twisted perspective: (also called composite post) which means to show an animal from many perspectives at once. It is used to show more detail to the person looking. Bird headed man with Bison: Human figures in cave paintings are very rare in this time period (will be on test). Deep in Lascar cave, there is a painting of a man (definitely human with genitalia) that has the head of a birs (composite images are not uncommon in ancient art history) Paintings at Altamira: Discovered by an amateur and his daughter, and that paintings were originally declared forgeries until mineral deposits that that thousands of year to for were found. The Bison in these cave paintings were done mostly with red ocher and were painting on rock outcroppings Bison, D’Audobert: Bison relief sculptures made from clay. There where created as an additive sculpture and are in high relief, projecting out very far from the clay. Relief sculpture: 3D work that projects from a surface. Sculpture in the round: a sculpture free of any background plane Additive sculpture: material is added to create a for, like clay Subtractive sculpture, pieces are removed, like carving away at a sculpture Neolithic period: Civilizations begin to settle in permanent locations and engage in farming. This is partially due to climate changes, with the world warming up and happened at different times in different places. These settlements had many experiments with art, like basket weaving and sculptures, and cities were often made for the purpose of defense. One city was made without any roads and people got to the roofs with ladders and travelled along the roofs. Houses made of mud, brick and mortar, and houses were built on top of each other, up to 12 stories high, and that the dead were buried beneath the floor much of the time. There are also many wall paintings that were recovered, and many were quite violent. Henge: a circle of stones or post often surrounded by a ditch Stonehenge: a famous megalith. Believed by many be created for rituals involving death. Made from two kinds od stone: Sasen: a grey sandstone, 40 tons and came from about 150 miles west.. Blue stones, a volcanic rock that is smaller, at 4 tons. Built over 8 phases of construction, and the site was believed to already have been sacred and used for burial and cremation. There are a few trilithons near the middle. It is now generally accepted that stone hedge was the center of ceremonies involving death. Trilithons: The most basic post and lintel form, with a lintel of top of two post. Durrington walls was a settlement near stone hedge that had similar architecture, but was built with wood. It was connected to stone hedge, so that ceremonies could be preformed, but the city of the living and the city of the dead were separated. Friday, 1/22/2016 Mesopotamia: the land between the rivers, referring to the tigris and Euohrates Considered the cradle of civilization, since it is where the wheel id developed, and the place where writing was first developed. Had the first literature and poems and so on. Developed into cities, and then city states. Workers specialize in skills beyond farming, such as pottery, textiles, and metal working, which encourages trade. Large governmental buildings often used for religious purposes. The religions were polytheistic, and each city had their own religion. This time and region is characterized by lots of conflict. One group rising, overthrown by another rising group, and repeat. Sumer: the sumerians were the first Mesopotamian culture to rise to power, first city state, Ukur. Developed leadership and division of labor. The Sumerians developed the first writing system, which was inistually used only for business/government. They originally had a pictographic language, but later developed cuneiform, a phonetic alphabet that was the first writing system. They also developed the lost wax process of metalworking. Theorcratic society, each with protective gods. Cities built Ziggurats to honor gods and dignify the city. The Ziggurat is built as a man made mountain, since mountains are the homes of the gods. They were built from mud bricks, since stone was not available, and did not weather well. Built only for select few, priest, to wait for gods to decent, not built for general public. Votive figures, also Sumerian. Believed to be dedicated to the gods. They represent everyday people, not gods. Believed to be stand in worshippers. 6” to 30”. General portrait of people, no one in particular. Sculpture size represents relative wealth of commissioner. Very geometric versioin human form. Some statues had donor name and the god name given. Sumerian texts say that gods should be approached with attentive gaze, and paying attention to the gods is very important, so the eyes are huge. Face of a woman, known as warka head. It is made from marble and is believed to have used to been a part of a complete statue. A very naturalistic figure in many ways. There used to be shell and the like in eyebrow and eye sockets. Also believe to have had a gold wig, which explains the cut in her head. The great Lyre with a bull’s head. Part of a huge cemetary with 1,800 grades. 16 of those graves were huge, lavish, made od stone, and called royal tombs. Most likely played by a woman at a funeral and then she was sacrificed. Made of very rich materials, such as lapis lazuli, a very rare stone worth far more than gold. The front panel of the sound box has scenes from the epic of Gilgamesh, which was the first known epic poem. Akkad: The akkadians, led by Sargon, conquered sumer and held power for over a century. There is little known about their architecture, since their capital has not been located. Head of a man: known as Akkadian ruler. Made of brozen and represents a person. The earliest known work of hollow brass sculpture. Made by the lost wax technique. The lost wax process involves many steps, but in the end, the sculptor has a clay mold with a wax model inside, melted metal is pored into the mold, and the wax melts and flows out. The work was made by a very accomplished artisan. Believed to have been part of a larger statue and had gems embedded and the like. Believed to have been vandalized when invaders sacked the city.
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