Management 2500 Chapter One Notes
Management 2500 Chapter One Notes 2500
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christopher Maisonneuve on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2500 at Western Michigan University taught by Melissa L Intindola in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Management in Business, management at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 01/13/16
Chapter 1: What Is Organizational Behavior? The behavior of people in organizations. how some feels or acts in an organization Demonstrate the Importance of Interpersonal Skills in the Workplace By understanding organizational behavior helps determine how effective managers are Leadership and communication skills are important for people to progress in their jobs and for the organization to be successful Managers with solid interpersonal skills = positive outcomes for the organization Outcomes = less of the valued employees leaving, improvement in recruitment for the company ‘Good places to work’ preform better financially Interpersonal skills can cause us to stay with crappy jobs because of the environment or people, or it can cause us to leave perfect jobs because of the environment or people. #1 Skill Grads Need (May 2015) Have you ever had a boss who had all the technical skills, but lacked in people skills? Organizational Behavior is interpersonal skills (or people skills) An article from USA Today states that college grads today have the hard skills for the job, but they are lacking the soft skills. Hard skills are the technical skills Soft skills are the people skills, critical thinking, problem-solving, oral communication, leadership, and written communication. Describe the Manager’s Functions, Roles, and Skills Manager: A person who gets things that are needed done through other employees in organizations. (leading you to do what they want to do, plan, organize, and control) Organization: A coordinated unit made up of two or more people works together on a basis to accomplish a central goal or set of goals. (group of people who work together to achieve goals) Henri Fayol of France defined the functions of management ~ planning, organizing, leading, and controlling ~ that became the cornerstone for management study for almost 100 years Henry Mintzberg saw management differently he defined the 10 roles of managers They are broken up in three main categories with sub categories; Interpersonal: figurehead, leader, Liaison Informational: Monitor, Disseminator, Spokesperson Decisional: Entrepreneur, Disturbance handler, Resource allocator, Negotiator Development of young professionals and are essential to managerial success Researchers have identified several skills that set successful managers: Management Skills Technical Skills – ability to apply knowledge and expertise. Are they experienced to do the job? (these are through through college and other experiences) Human Skills – ability to motivate, understand, and work with people (individually and in groups) Are you able work with people to get work done? (Can you motivate people/ communicate with other people?) Conceptual Skills – mental ability to analyze complicated situations. Are you capable of thinking critically if the answer not necessarily clear? (Can you solve problems, or think things through) Effective Versus Successful Managerial Activities Luthans and his associates discovered that all managers engage in four main managerial activities: Traditional management – decision making, planning, controlling (average manager spent 32% of their time on this) Communication – exchanging information, processing paperwork (average manager spent 29% of their time on this) Human resource management–employee ‘stuff’ (average manager spent 20% of their time on this) Networking – socializing, interacting with others (average manager spent 19% of their time on this) Usually managers do these four things Luthans believes that they need to focus on certain activities to be successful Managers who were high performing in these managerial activities were found to be fast- track to company promotion. Everything depends on how you see success… Many successful managers focused on Networking because in order to get ahead in business you need to network and make connections. Many other successful managers focused on Communication because they need to be able to express what they want to say in order for their employees to know what they wanted them to do Different Managers choose to focus on main activities… Average Managers = Traditional Management (32%), Communication (29%), Human Resource Management (20%), Networking (19%) Successful Managers = Traditional Management (13%), Communication (28%), Human Resource Management (11%), Networking (48%) Effective Managers = Traditional Management (19%), Communication (44%), Human Resource Management (26%), Networking (11%) Define “Organizational Behavior” (OB) Organizational behavior (OB) is a study that looks at the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on the behavior inside organizations for the purpose of putting knowledge toward improving the effectiveness of the organization. OB explores motivation, leader behavior, leader power, communication, group structure Processes attitude development, attitude perception Change processes, conflict, negotiation, and work design Organizational Behavior is important because you will need to be able work with people. Past behaviors can help indicate future behaviors. We need to be able to understand one another. Identify the Major Behavioral Science Disciplines That Contribute to Organizational Behavior Built by a combination of: Psychology Social Psychology Sociology Anthropology Management (organizational behavior)- psychology of people in the work place. Help to understand why people act the way they do. Demonstrate Why Few Absolute Apply to OB There are few universal principles that help explain organizational behavior Contingency variables — situational factors that moderate the relationship between independent and dependent variables. These variables make it impossible to predict people’s actions exactly. Studying human behavior = Everything depends on something! Making decisions - must take into consideration the situational factors that can change the relationship between variables Every situation has the ability to have unseen factors or known factors that can be altered quickly Opening your minds to detecting these changes is essential to being an effective manager Identify the Challenges and Opportunities of OB Concepts Economic pressure= good management is needed Tough times- to keep your job; issues like stress, decision making, and coping come forward Good times- to keep your employees; if they are not happy they can go anywhere Responding to globalization Work with people from various cultures Keeping track of movement of jobs to other countries with low-cost labor Adapting to different cultural norms. Assessing risk to refugees Managing diversity in the workplace Workforce diversity – organizations becoming more diversified in terms of age, race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and inclusion of other groups. You must understand everyone because diversity has been increasing in the workplace. You need to have different management skills for the different employees to be more effective. Must improve customer service Service employees have a lot of interaction with customers. Employee attitudes and behavior are connected with the customer’s satisfaction. We need a culture where it is customer-responsive Customers react differently to the employees’ performance. Managers must encourage employees to be happy and friendly to keep customers happy. Must improve people skills People skills are needed to be an effective manager. Organizational Behavior provides the theories that allow managers to predetermine employee behavior in situations. An organization is a group of people-> an organization cannot accomplish goals without the people. Networked organizations Networked organizations are becoming more known A manager’s job is structurally different within networked organizations. Challenges of motivating and leading “online” These organizations that are spread over the globe and spread over different times, but that are connected by technology. Managing people who never see each other (but still work together) requires different management skills. ~ It is important to remember that managing online is different than managing in person. Enhancing employee well-being in the workplace The increase of global workforce means that work doesn’t sleep anymore. ~ time is no longer defined in a boundary for organizational work and personal responsibility Communication technology- provided a drive for working at anywhere and at any time. Employees are now working longer hours a week ~ Now employees feel as if they don’t get a break at work ~ twenty-four hours a day can be less effective ~ employees can suffer from burnouts and dissatisfaction. Today lifestyles of families are changing which are creating conflicts. Finding balance in work and life is more important now for an employee than job security. ~ Managers must find this balance to avoid employees from stress and to keep them effective and valuable. Creating a positive workplace This can be a competitive advantage Positive work environment- more employee satisfaction and increased productivity Improving the ethical behavior Ethical dilemmas and ethical choices are where a person needs to define what is right and wrong. ~ Managers must define what is ethical behavior by the organization and its people It is not easily defined what good ethical behavior is An organization hands out codes of ethics to help guide employee. Managers must create an ethically environment to work in. Three Levels of Analysis in This Book’s OB Model Inputs Variables like personality, group structure, and organizational environment that leads to things Role, group structure, and team responsibilities- usually assigned before or after a group is formed. The structure of an organization changes over time as the organization adapts to the environment and customs. Inputs are like the nouns in organizational behavior These make up the organization and environment. Processes Defined as actions that individuals, groups, and organizations engage in as a result of inputs, and that lead to certain outcomes. Individual level= emotions, mood, motivation, and making decisions. Group level= communication, leadership, power, conflict, and negotiation. Organizational level= human resource management and altering ways and practices. Processes are like verbs in organizational behavior These are what we do in the organization and environment. Outcomes The key variables that you predict or explain, affected by other variables Scholars have focused on individual-level outcomes like attitude, satisfaction, performance, ethical behavior, and withdrawal behavior. Group level= functioning together make up the dependent variables. Organizational level= the survival and profitability of the organization These are what happen in the organization and environment. Outcome Variables Stress and Attitudes Attitudes are the evaluations made by employees (can positive or negative) about people, events, or objects Attitudes often result in consequences that are directly related to organizational effectiveness. Stress is a negative mental process that is a response to pressure put on from the environment Task performance Task performance is your effectiveness and efficiency at doing your work tasks It is the most important human output for the effectiveness of the organization. Citizenship behavior Citizenship behavior is the behavior that is not part of formal job requirements. It adds to the mental and social work environment. Today tasks are more frequently done by teams (flexibility is very important) Engaged employees with good citizenship behaviors are helpful to others that are apart of the team ~ They volunteer for extra work, avoiding unnecessary conflicts, respecting the others, and dealing with work issues. Withdrawal behavior Withdrawal behavior= set of actions done by employees that distance themselves from the organization. Employee withdrawal= can have negative effects on the company. The cost for an employee turnover has run up to thousands of dollars, even for entry positions. Absenteeism also costs organizations significant amounts of money and time every year. ~ For instance, a recent survey found the average direct cost to U.S. employers of unscheduled absences are 8.7 percent of payroll. Example: Calling into work when you aren’t really sick, just because you don’t want to work is a withdrawal behavior. Also, not leaving, even though you aren’t happy. Group cohesion Group cohesion= people of a group support each other at tasks Employees trust each other, work to accomplish common goals= they are cohesive Divided employees, in terms of what their goals are, have small amount of loyalty toward each other= they are not cohesive. Group functioning Group functioning= the quality and quantity of a group’s output work The more there is group’s cohesion= the more of an affect on group functioning (leads to effectiveness and positive impacts on the members. Productivity A productive organization= achieving goals by changing inputs into outputs at a low cost. This needs both effectiveness and efficiency in the organization Organizational efficiency= return on investments, profit per dollar, and output per hour of work. Service organizations= include the customers needs to assess their effectiveness. The productivity is altered by the behaviors of everyone that is apart of the organization (managers, employees, and supervisors) Survival Final outcome= organizational survival -> the proof that the organization is able to grow and exist Organizations want to survive to make money and grow. Increased productivity-> the survival of the firm-> the main goal of organizations