Sports in American History Chapter One
Sports in American History Chapter One 2125
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christopher Maisonneuve on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2125 at Western Michigan University taught by Linda J. Borish, Jenifer L. Blouin, Patrick V. Hargis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Sports in American History in History at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 01/13/16
Sports Experiences in Colonial America 1400-1750 Chapter One CHAPTER OBJECTIVES After reading thing chapter, you will have learned about the following: The foundations of sport in colonial America emerging from the people's of various cultures The significance of sporting practices and recreation for diverse groups of Native Americans The attitudes of various European colonists about sport and physical exercises and how these attitudes shaped sport patterns in American colonies The influence of religion on sport throughout the American colonies The importance of social class, race, and gender in the growth of sport in colonial America The types of sports played in colonial America, as well as regional variations in sport I. Native American Games played a. Tlachtli i. Started in the 1500’s ii. Often witnessed by white settlers and missionaries 1. As noted by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún a. A lot of gambling by the Native Americans took place b. There were two walls with stone, ball court ruled rings, where the opponent would try to score. b. Three groups of people who shaped heritage in colonial America i. Native Americans (original inhabitants of North America) ii. Africans (forced against their will to the new world as laborers and slaves) iii. White Europeans (especially from Great Britain 1. All of these groups played a role in the patterns of sport in colonial America 2. Religious patterns, social-class structures, race, gender roles, ethnicity, and regional environments also contributed iv. Tension in the new world 1. The quest for riches and power led to much of the tension II. Native American Pastimes and Sports a. Led through their very physically active lives, Native Americans played many games to provide additional training for various practices b. Archery i. Boys shot arrows through rolling hoops that represent moving animals ii. Men practiced a type of speed shooting to see who could keep as many arrows in the air at one time c. Running i. Very important for .. 1. Messengers looking for food 2. Delivering goods 3. Carry news of war or other important news between tribes ii. Iroquois runners could cover 240 miles in just a three day period iii. Competitive games 1. Both males and females would engage in kickball races a. Required continuous propulsion of a ball over a long course that could cover up to 25 miles d. Horse riding i. Horses were first brought over by European explorers 1. Native Americans acquired them by trading, raiding, or rounding up runaways ii. Members of tribes would compete with other tribes in 3 or 4 mile races with the horses 1. Nez perce riders even challenged Lewis and Clark to a horse race iii. Shoeshone Idians of northern Utah participated in horse races as part of their sporting heritage 1. They often wagered on the races iv. Many tribes held horse races on holidays and for county fairs 1. These events were well organized, right down to the monitoring of track sizes, specific race distances and other regulations e. Lacrosse i. Most prominent competition in Native American culture 1. Saw in everyday life as a magical, religious, and a ritualistic activity 2. Provided training for war ii. There were a lot of flexible rules 1. No out of bounds lines 2. Field were irregularly constructed 3. Games were played with a varying number of players (sometimes in the hundred) iii. European travelers thought lacrosse was fascinating f. Shinny and Double Ball i. Shinny 1. Has hockey like characteristics with curved sticks to propel a ball ii. Double Ball 1. Only played by women 2. Similar to lacrosse, the game involved to balls tied together 3. Thrown using sticks and served as a test of endurance g. Toli and Other Forms of Stickball i. Toli 1. More commonly know as stick ball a. It exhibited aspects of warfare and was used to settle disputes b. Game rules were minimal ii. Father Paul du Ru witnessed a different type of stickball and noted the differences between men and women versions 1. Men version a. Men work in pairs b. One has a ball in hand and throws it ahead and the other throws a stick to see who can get it closer wins the play 2. Women version a. Separated into two parties between two large posts b. First team to get the ball in the center and run around their post three times win III. Influence of religion on English Colonists i. Ongoing clashes between Catholics and protestants ii. These religious tensions influenced European colonists’ view of the appropriateness of physical exercises and sport b.Calvinism i. In the 1530’s John Calvin called for religious reform in Europe ii. They were also known as Calvinists 1. They believed that one’s fate was known by God and only few would be chooses for salvation c. New England Colonies i. Colonists initially strived to maintain their devout religious outlooks ii. They often found games that were in accordance with their values d. Puritans in New England i. Puritans wanted to establish a godly community and practice their religious tenets free of opposition 1. To do this they immigrated to New England ii. Puritans allowed sports like fishing, fowling, archery, and hunting 1. Although some New England newspapers sought to stop this iii. The only organized spectator sport in New England was horse racing 1. This started in the 1730’s e. Middle Colonies i. William Penn wanted to offer a place where his Quakers could practice their religion ii. His passionate focus on the Quaker faith allowed little tolerance for sport in the middle colony of Pennsylvania f. Sporting Pastimes in Colonial Pennsylvania i. William Penn and he Quakers promoted a religion very different from the puritans 1. Quakers trusted a direct communication from God g. Sporting Interests and Challenges to the Quakers i. Quaker ministers and authorities faced a challenge trying to enforce regulations 1. As population increased, many settlers had their own values they lived by ii. Eventually elite sports clubs were founded 1. Quakers were instructed by leaders not to get involved DISCUSSION QUESTIONS How do the concepts of sport in the pre colonization period and the period of American colonial development differ from current or more recent concepts of sport? What are some of the characteristics of Native American sport? In what ways did religion affect the growth of sport in the early American colonies? Explain some of the similarities and differences between the sports played in various colonies. What were the sporting experiences of African Americans in earlier colonial American Explain the ways in which men and women of various groups of colonial Americans participated in sport and how sporting practices illustrated gender differences
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