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TXMI 3530 Chapter One Notes

by: Ashley Pacilio

TXMI 3530 Chapter One Notes TXMI 3530

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Retail > TXMI 3530 > TXMI 3530 Chapter One Notes
Ashley Pacilio
GPA 3.69

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About this Document

These notes cover chapter one of our textbook, Apparel Quality: A Guide to Evaluating Sewn Products by Janace E. Bubonia
Apparel Quality Analysis
Laura McAndrews
Class Notes
Fashion, apparel, quality, analysis, sewn products
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Pacilio on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to TXMI 3530 at University of Georgia taught by Laura McAndrews in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Apparel Quality Analysis in Retail at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 01/13/16
CHAPTER ONE – OVERVIEW OF APPAREL QUALITY AND THE CONSUMER  Armand V. Feigenbaum – creator of the total quality control concept and former  president of the American Society for Quality (ASQ) o Control must start with the design of the product and end only when the  product has been placed in the hands of the customer who remains  satisfied o The first principle is to recognize that quality is everybody’s job  Merriam­Webster quality definition: degree of excellence; superiority in kind;  inherent feature  ASQ quality definition: a subjective term for which each person or sector has its  own definition;  o In technical usage, quality can have two meanings:  o 1. The characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to  satisfy stated or implied needs o 2. A product or service free of deficiencies  Quality can be explained on three distinct approaches: product­defined,  manufacturer­defined, and user­defined  Product­defined quality: focuses on the physical features and attributes that are  measureable  o Inherent physical features help determine the quality o Materials and component parts o Methods of assembly o Seam construction o Finishing  o Selections are based on the brand’s established quality level, performance  expectations of the customer, and the targeted price point  Manufacturer­defined quality: concentrated on meeting specifications for  conformance to production standards and is based on the concept that consumers  are interested in purchasing quality products they can rely on o Have to follow some government regulations o Production standards and specifications  User­defined quality: determined by individual customers’ needs and wants in  relation to their personal preferences for desired product attributes and value  ELEMENTS OF QUALITY  Quality is composed of five elements: performance, durability, serviceability,  conformance, and aesthetics  These are often interrelated – which means positive changes in one element can  cause negative changes in another o This is where knowing the customers’ preferences come in handy Performance  Encompasses the functional aspects and features of a garment for its intended use  Utilizes a combination of product­defined and user­defined perspectives for  determining quality  Can be measured by physical attributes, individual consumer preferences,  interests, and performance   Garment features: the physical characteristics or special components that enhance and support product performance such as fibers, yarns and material structure,  seam construction, and fabric finishes   Features are directly linked to product performance Durability  The element of quality that indicates a product’s ability to resist physical and  mechanical deterioration and function for its intended use over a specified period  of time   The useful life of the product – the length of use before it becomes physically  damaged and the consumer chooses to replace the item rather than repair it  Based on product­defined and user­defined approaches  Serviceability  Its ease of care, ability to retain its shape and appearance, and cost of maintenance (care and repair)  Method and cost of care can impact willingness to buy (ex. Drycleaning)  All methods of care require some additional cost  Relies on the user­defined approach Conformance  The degree to which the design and performance of a product meets established  standards  Product specifications should conform to standards established by the  designer/product developer and the manufacturer and can also require meeting  government regulations  Material specifications: provide performance expectations required for all  materials that will be used to complete a garment style  Design specifications: the styling details, design features, and characteristics of an apparel item in relation to aesthetic appeal  Product specifications: provide standards for intrinsic components of a completed product such as size and fit, garment assembly, finishing, labeling, packaging, and performance  Utilizes the manufacturing­based approach; measured objectively   If conformance or durability is improved, the other likely is positively affected as  well  Aesthetics  Relies on the user­based approach to quality  Aesthetics of a garment engage the senses and include the appearance, comfort,  sound, and smell  Highly subjective – relies on personal preference QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND CUES  Meeting standards and specifications  Conform to designated requirements   Appropriate for the intended end­use  Garment styling, sizing and fit, fabric, component materials, findings and trims,  workmanship, and precision of assembly Primary Quality Indicators/Intrinsic Quality Cues  Are part of the physical structure of the product   Features, characteristics, and benefits  Tangible attributes: can be assessed using one’s senses such as sight, touch,  sound, and smell  Cannot be altered without physically changing it  Physical attributes: the design of the product, the materials used, and how the  product is constructed and finished o Raw materials are an indicator (fibers, yarn, construction, dyes, etc.) o Style and construction details o Positioning of fitting details such as darts, tucks, seams, gathers, pleats,  etc.   Performance features: dictate the garment’s primary functional characteristics,  such as comfort, usefulness, and benefits  Aesthetic characteristics: the overall attractiveness of the materials, styling, and  design o Must also maintain its’ shape and appearance after cleaning  Functional characteristics: its ability to perform in relation to fit, durability,  effectiveness, and ease of care  Product benefits: result from the right combination of physical attributes and  performance features that are desired by consumers to meet their needs and  expectations  Secondary Quality Indicators/Extrinsic Quality Cues  Those that add to a quality though they may not reflect reality  External to the product and not part of the physical makeup   Include price, image, and reputation of the brand and retailer, country of origin,  advertising and marketing, and visual representation  Based on perception rather than fact – cues are implied  Retail price: the amount designated by the retailer to be paid by the consumer in  exchange for a product or service   Price point classification: the range of prices, lowest to highest, upon which  competitive products are offered in the marketplace o Budget, moderate, better, bridge, and designer  Brand: the reputation of a product or company that is conveyed through brand  image, wordmark, logo, product design, quality, marketing and promotion,  distribution of goods, and customer service o Can provide competitive advantage and be a serious quality indicator o Often equate price with quality, but not always true  Budget: the lowest price category for mass­produced apparel products, geared  toward a wide range of market segments o Mass market appeal, value­driven products, and low prices  Moderate: average prices for mass­produced apparel products geared toward  meeting the needs of middle­income consumers  o Broad appeal, value, and quality in relation to price  Better: above­average prices for mass­produced apparel o Expectation of better quality fabric and more advanced construction  Contemporary: similar to “better,” but slightly higher o Very fashion­forward, trendy, for juniors/misses  Bridge: mass­produced apparel priced between the better and designer categories o High quality and elements at lower price point then designer  Designer: the highest price point for mass­produced apparel  o Exclusive design, high quality fabrics, niche construction details  CONSUMER QUALITY PERCEPTIONS AND EXPECTATIONS  “While delivery and other factors may sell a product the first time, it is usually  quality which keeps the product sold and which keeps the customer coming back  a second and third time” – Armand Feigenbaum  Influences and Motivators  Understand the target market to meet their needs and expectations  Target market research: valuable demographic and lifestyle data for both existing and potential customers within specific market segments that are used to develop  more narrowly defined customer profiles  Demographic data: statistical information about a population that includes age,  gender, income, education, geographic area, family size, housing type,  nationality/ethnicity/rice, marital status, occupation, spending patterns, religion o Obtained by census every 10 years  Consumer Price Index (CPI) provides monthly and yearly spending patterns data  Harmonized Indexes of Consumer Prices (HICP) – compares European countries   Lifestyle data, or psychographics, includes social and psychological factors such  as life stage, reference groups/peers, social class, personality, attitudes and values, generation group, and cultural preferences (ethnic or cultural)  o Gathered primarily through surveys or focus groups o Combined with demographic, provides a wealth of info about target  market of a brand or retailer  Product Value  Product value: based on the customer’s perception of quality for the price paid;  value is a subjective term that varies by individual  Perceived quality: the consumer’s opinion of the level of superiority of a product  based on brand reputation, value, and meeting expectations   The actual value of an item cannot be determined at the point of purchase  Every item has a life expectancy – that’s when value is found out  Has value as long as it remains useful   Cost per wear: determined by dividing the purchase price of a garment by the  number of times it has been worn MEASURING PRODUCT QUALITY  Trying to balance costs and expectations  Quality assurance: the method for managing and controlling the processes for  development and manufacturing of apparel to ensure product quality and  compliance with safety regulations   Quality control: the process for ensuring specified standards for quality are  maintained through continual testing at different phases of production, performing frequent inspections, and ensuring proper use of equipment and procedures  Preventative measures such as monitoring and inspection of product quality and  random testing through development o Reduce defects, returns, recalls, and customer complaints  Inspection: the evaluation of factories in relation to capacity and quality control,  function, and appearance of materials and components, random selection to detect defects and deviations Standards for Apparel Performance  Standards: technical documents developed and established within the consensus  of international, national, federal organizations and agencies, consortiums, or  individual companies o Provide methods for producing repeatable results to increase product  quality and safety o Quality, environmental friendliness, safety, reliability, efficiency and  interchangeability – at an economical cost  o Industry standards developed by international/national trade associations  or industry organizations o Government standards are developed by gov’t agencies or private sectors o Some companies develop rigorous internal standards  Mandatory/regulatory standards: are part of required laws or regulations that are  enforced by government  Voluntary standards: not enforceable but are often utilized to maintain quality   Test methods: procedures for conducting and gathering test results for  identification, measurement, and evaluation purposes  Specifications: a set of established requirements for determining whether the  material or product satisfies quality standards related to performance criteria,  safety, or physical, mechanical, or chemical properties Organizations Developing Standards for Textile and Apparel Performance  International Organization for Standardization (ISO): largest organization for  developing and publishing standards o Established in 1947 in Geneva, Switzerland o Nongovernmental body composed of members of the national standards  institutes from 162 countries  o Publishes more than 19,500 consensus standards that are highly specific to a material, product, or process to provide conformity assessment  o Conformity assessment: checking whether products, services, materials,  processes, systems, and personnel measure up to the requirements of  standards, regulations, etc.   ASTM International: formerly American Society of Testing and Materials,  founded in 1898 by chemists and engineers from the Pennsylvania Railroad o Publishes roughly 12,500 voluntary standards from around the globe o Publishes 82 volumes that are divided into 16 sections that are highly  specific to materials, products, and processes within various industries   American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC): internationally recognized for its development of standard test methods o Publishes nearly 130 voluntary test methods and evaluation procedures in  the Technical Manual of the American Association of Textile Chemists  and Colorists annually o Cover colorfastness, dyeing properties, biological properties, identification and analysis, physical properties, and evaluation procedures  Technical Advisory Group (TAG): represents the U.S. in all ISO/TC 38 Textile  Committee actions o Jointly administered by ASTM International’s D13 Textile Committee and AATCC  American National Standards Institute (ANSI): a private non­profit organization  founded in 1918 by five engineering societies and three government agencies that  administrators and coordinators the voluntary standardization system in the U.S.  British Standards Institution (BSI): the National Standards Body (NSB) of the UK o 34,000 standards across a broad spectrum of industries  o Currently develop and publish 1,800 standards annually  European Committee for Standardization (CEN): an international non­profit  organization established in1975 in Brussels, Belgium o They have experts in 33 European countries  China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS): established as a non­profit  organization affiliated with the General Administration of Quality Supervision  and Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China  Japanese Standards Association (JSA): approved by the Minister of Trade and  Industry in 1945 and was a merger between Dai Nihon Arial Technology  Association and the Japan Management Association  o Educates the public regarding standardization and unification of industrial  standards and therefore improving technology and efficiency  o Publishes the Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) o The Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC) was established  within the Ministry of the Economy, Trade, and Industry  Standards Council of Canada (SCC): established in 1970 as a result of the federal  government’s review of standards activity  o Administers the National Standards System (NSS) in Canada  Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry (INDA): founded in 1968 as a non­ profit organization under the name International Nonwovens and Disposables  Association o The name was changed in1976; but the acronym is mainly used  o After three years of existence and significant growth of the nonwovens  industry, it was apparent that one organization was not enough o This born European Disposables and Nonwovens Association (EDANA) in 1971: primarily serves nonwovens in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa o Standard Test Methods for the Nonwovens Industry is produced by the  combined efforts of INDA and EDANA  Help promote and facilitate fair trade among countries Compliance Roles   Quality must be considered just as carefully as the design   Control (design + material + product + process) / Costs (inspection + rejects) x  Customer satisfaction = Total Quality Control o “An effective system for integrating the quality development, quality­ maintenance, and quality­improvement efforts of the various groups in an  organization so as to enable marketing, engineering, production, and  service at the most economical levels which allow for full customer  satisfaction” – Armand Feigenbaum  Quality starts at the inception of the product  Compliance: the ability of a material, finding, or apparel product to conform to  established standards and specifications to meet customer expectations that lead to satisfaction  Sourcing production in the factories that can manufacture apparel products at the  desired price and quality level is very important 


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