TXMI 3530 Chapter One Notes
TXMI 3530 Chapter One Notes TXMI 3530
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Pacilio on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to TXMI 3530 at University of Georgia taught by Laura McAndrews in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Apparel Quality Analysis in Retail at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/13/16
CHAPTER ONE – OVERVIEW OF APPAREL QUALITY AND THE CONSUMER Armand V. Feigenbaum – creator of the total quality control concept and former president of the American Society for Quality (ASQ) o Control must start with the design of the product and end only when the product has been placed in the hands of the customer who remains satisfied o The first principle is to recognize that quality is everybody’s job MerriamWebster quality definition: degree of excellence; superiority in kind; inherent feature ASQ quality definition: a subjective term for which each person or sector has its own definition; o In technical usage, quality can have two meanings: o 1. The characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs o 2. A product or service free of deficiencies Quality can be explained on three distinct approaches: productdefined, manufacturerdefined, and userdefined Productdefined quality: focuses on the physical features and attributes that are measureable o Inherent physical features help determine the quality o Materials and component parts o Methods of assembly o Seam construction o Finishing o Selections are based on the brand’s established quality level, performance expectations of the customer, and the targeted price point Manufacturerdefined quality: concentrated on meeting specifications for conformance to production standards and is based on the concept that consumers are interested in purchasing quality products they can rely on o Have to follow some government regulations o Production standards and specifications Userdefined quality: determined by individual customers’ needs and wants in relation to their personal preferences for desired product attributes and value ELEMENTS OF QUALITY Quality is composed of five elements: performance, durability, serviceability, conformance, and aesthetics These are often interrelated – which means positive changes in one element can cause negative changes in another o This is where knowing the customers’ preferences come in handy Performance Encompasses the functional aspects and features of a garment for its intended use Utilizes a combination of productdefined and userdefined perspectives for determining quality Can be measured by physical attributes, individual consumer preferences, interests, and performance Garment features: the physical characteristics or special components that enhance and support product performance such as fibers, yarns and material structure, seam construction, and fabric finishes Features are directly linked to product performance Durability The element of quality that indicates a product’s ability to resist physical and mechanical deterioration and function for its intended use over a specified period of time The useful life of the product – the length of use before it becomes physically damaged and the consumer chooses to replace the item rather than repair it Based on productdefined and userdefined approaches Serviceability Its ease of care, ability to retain its shape and appearance, and cost of maintenance (care and repair) Method and cost of care can impact willingness to buy (ex. Drycleaning) All methods of care require some additional cost Relies on the userdefined approach Conformance The degree to which the design and performance of a product meets established standards Product specifications should conform to standards established by the designer/product developer and the manufacturer and can also require meeting government regulations Material specifications: provide performance expectations required for all materials that will be used to complete a garment style Design specifications: the styling details, design features, and characteristics of an apparel item in relation to aesthetic appeal Product specifications: provide standards for intrinsic components of a completed product such as size and fit, garment assembly, finishing, labeling, packaging, and performance Utilizes the manufacturingbased approach; measured objectively If conformance or durability is improved, the other likely is positively affected as well Aesthetics Relies on the userbased approach to quality Aesthetics of a garment engage the senses and include the appearance, comfort, sound, and smell Highly subjective – relies on personal preference QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND CUES Meeting standards and specifications Conform to designated requirements Appropriate for the intended enduse Garment styling, sizing and fit, fabric, component materials, findings and trims, workmanship, and precision of assembly Primary Quality Indicators/Intrinsic Quality Cues Are part of the physical structure of the product Features, characteristics, and benefits Tangible attributes: can be assessed using one’s senses such as sight, touch, sound, and smell Cannot be altered without physically changing it Physical attributes: the design of the product, the materials used, and how the product is constructed and finished o Raw materials are an indicator (fibers, yarn, construction, dyes, etc.) o Style and construction details o Positioning of fitting details such as darts, tucks, seams, gathers, pleats, etc. Performance features: dictate the garment’s primary functional characteristics, such as comfort, usefulness, and benefits Aesthetic characteristics: the overall attractiveness of the materials, styling, and design o Must also maintain its’ shape and appearance after cleaning Functional characteristics: its ability to perform in relation to fit, durability, effectiveness, and ease of care Product benefits: result from the right combination of physical attributes and performance features that are desired by consumers to meet their needs and expectations Secondary Quality Indicators/Extrinsic Quality Cues Those that add to a quality though they may not reflect reality External to the product and not part of the physical makeup Include price, image, and reputation of the brand and retailer, country of origin, advertising and marketing, and visual representation Based on perception rather than fact – cues are implied Retail price: the amount designated by the retailer to be paid by the consumer in exchange for a product or service Price point classification: the range of prices, lowest to highest, upon which competitive products are offered in the marketplace o Budget, moderate, better, bridge, and designer Brand: the reputation of a product or company that is conveyed through brand image, wordmark, logo, product design, quality, marketing and promotion, distribution of goods, and customer service o Can provide competitive advantage and be a serious quality indicator o Often equate price with quality, but not always true Budget: the lowest price category for massproduced apparel products, geared toward a wide range of market segments o Mass market appeal, valuedriven products, and low prices Moderate: average prices for massproduced apparel products geared toward meeting the needs of middleincome consumers o Broad appeal, value, and quality in relation to price Better: aboveaverage prices for massproduced apparel o Expectation of better quality fabric and more advanced construction Contemporary: similar to “better,” but slightly higher o Very fashionforward, trendy, for juniors/misses Bridge: massproduced apparel priced between the better and designer categories o High quality and elements at lower price point then designer Designer: the highest price point for massproduced apparel o Exclusive design, high quality fabrics, niche construction details CONSUMER QUALITY PERCEPTIONS AND EXPECTATIONS “While delivery and other factors may sell a product the first time, it is usually quality which keeps the product sold and which keeps the customer coming back a second and third time” – Armand Feigenbaum Influences and Motivators Understand the target market to meet their needs and expectations Target market research: valuable demographic and lifestyle data for both existing and potential customers within specific market segments that are used to develop more narrowly defined customer profiles Demographic data: statistical information about a population that includes age, gender, income, education, geographic area, family size, housing type, nationality/ethnicity/rice, marital status, occupation, spending patterns, religion o Obtained by census every 10 years Consumer Price Index (CPI) provides monthly and yearly spending patterns data Harmonized Indexes of Consumer Prices (HICP) – compares European countries Lifestyle data, or psychographics, includes social and psychological factors such as life stage, reference groups/peers, social class, personality, attitudes and values, generation group, and cultural preferences (ethnic or cultural) o Gathered primarily through surveys or focus groups o Combined with demographic, provides a wealth of info about target market of a brand or retailer Product Value Product value: based on the customer’s perception of quality for the price paid; value is a subjective term that varies by individual Perceived quality: the consumer’s opinion of the level of superiority of a product based on brand reputation, value, and meeting expectations The actual value of an item cannot be determined at the point of purchase Every item has a life expectancy – that’s when value is found out Has value as long as it remains useful Cost per wear: determined by dividing the purchase price of a garment by the number of times it has been worn MEASURING PRODUCT QUALITY Trying to balance costs and expectations Quality assurance: the method for managing and controlling the processes for development and manufacturing of apparel to ensure product quality and compliance with safety regulations Quality control: the process for ensuring specified standards for quality are maintained through continual testing at different phases of production, performing frequent inspections, and ensuring proper use of equipment and procedures Preventative measures such as monitoring and inspection of product quality and random testing through development o Reduce defects, returns, recalls, and customer complaints Inspection: the evaluation of factories in relation to capacity and quality control, function, and appearance of materials and components, random selection to detect defects and deviations Standards for Apparel Performance Standards: technical documents developed and established within the consensus of international, national, federal organizations and agencies, consortiums, or individual companies o Provide methods for producing repeatable results to increase product quality and safety o Quality, environmental friendliness, safety, reliability, efficiency and interchangeability – at an economical cost o Industry standards developed by international/national trade associations or industry organizations o Government standards are developed by gov’t agencies or private sectors o Some companies develop rigorous internal standards Mandatory/regulatory standards: are part of required laws or regulations that are enforced by government Voluntary standards: not enforceable but are often utilized to maintain quality Test methods: procedures for conducting and gathering test results for identification, measurement, and evaluation purposes Specifications: a set of established requirements for determining whether the material or product satisfies quality standards related to performance criteria, safety, or physical, mechanical, or chemical properties Organizations Developing Standards for Textile and Apparel Performance International Organization for Standardization (ISO): largest organization for developing and publishing standards o Established in 1947 in Geneva, Switzerland o Nongovernmental body composed of members of the national standards institutes from 162 countries o Publishes more than 19,500 consensus standards that are highly specific to a material, product, or process to provide conformity assessment o Conformity assessment: checking whether products, services, materials, processes, systems, and personnel measure up to the requirements of standards, regulations, etc. ASTM International: formerly American Society of Testing and Materials, founded in 1898 by chemists and engineers from the Pennsylvania Railroad o Publishes roughly 12,500 voluntary standards from around the globe o Publishes 82 volumes that are divided into 16 sections that are highly specific to materials, products, and processes within various industries American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC): internationally recognized for its development of standard test methods o Publishes nearly 130 voluntary test methods and evaluation procedures in the Technical Manual of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists annually o Cover colorfastness, dyeing properties, biological properties, identification and analysis, physical properties, and evaluation procedures Technical Advisory Group (TAG): represents the U.S. in all ISO/TC 38 Textile Committee actions o Jointly administered by ASTM International’s D13 Textile Committee and AATCC American National Standards Institute (ANSI): a private nonprofit organization founded in 1918 by five engineering societies and three government agencies that administrators and coordinators the voluntary standardization system in the U.S. British Standards Institution (BSI): the National Standards Body (NSB) of the UK o 34,000 standards across a broad spectrum of industries o Currently develop and publish 1,800 standards annually European Committee for Standardization (CEN): an international nonprofit organization established in1975 in Brussels, Belgium o They have experts in 33 European countries China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS): established as a nonprofit organization affiliated with the General Administration of Quality Supervision and Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China Japanese Standards Association (JSA): approved by the Minister of Trade and Industry in 1945 and was a merger between Dai Nihon Arial Technology Association and the Japan Management Association o Educates the public regarding standardization and unification of industrial standards and therefore improving technology and efficiency o Publishes the Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) o The Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC) was established within the Ministry of the Economy, Trade, and Industry Standards Council of Canada (SCC): established in 1970 as a result of the federal government’s review of standards activity o Administers the National Standards System (NSS) in Canada Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry (INDA): founded in 1968 as a non profit organization under the name International Nonwovens and Disposables Association o The name was changed in1976; but the acronym is mainly used o After three years of existence and significant growth of the nonwovens industry, it was apparent that one organization was not enough o This born European Disposables and Nonwovens Association (EDANA) in 1971: primarily serves nonwovens in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa o Standard Test Methods for the Nonwovens Industry is produced by the combined efforts of INDA and EDANA Help promote and facilitate fair trade among countries Compliance Roles Quality must be considered just as carefully as the design Control (design + material + product + process) / Costs (inspection + rejects) x Customer satisfaction = Total Quality Control o “An effective system for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance, and qualityimprovement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable marketing, engineering, production, and service at the most economical levels which allow for full customer satisfaction” – Armand Feigenbaum Quality starts at the inception of the product Compliance: the ability of a material, finding, or apparel product to conform to established standards and specifications to meet customer expectations that lead to satisfaction Sourcing production in the factories that can manufacture apparel products at the desired price and quality level is very important
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