Anatomy II Exam 1: Endocrine and Reproductive Systems
Anatomy II Exam 1: Endocrine and Reproductive Systems BIOL 2230
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This 182 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lyndon Neil on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2230 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/13/16
• Nervous system: • Endocrine system: •Can only affect • responds to stressors by excitable tissues and secreting chemical messengers glands that are sent throughout the body •Quick responses, last through the blood milliseconds • Slower to start, but lasts longer •Lag time can be anywhere from seconds to days • Chemical signals can effect anything that has the receptor for that chemical • Change metabolic (cellular) activity • Exocrine • Glands that secrete into a duct • Not part of the endocrine system • Sweat glands, saliva • Usually related to digestion • Exocrine • Endocrine • In the endocrine system • Secrete hormones • Secreted onto the cell surface or the adjacent space • Hormone ultimately makes its way into blood circulatory system • Hormone is secreted in one place and has an effect somewhere else in the body • Hormones • Secreted (produced) in one part of the body, have an effect somewhere else in the body • Long distance chemical messenger • Autocrines • Chemical messenger that affects the activity of the structure that produced it • Paracrines • Chemical messenger secreted by tissues in one part of the body and affects that localized area • Pheromones • Chemical signal that is created by one individual and affects the activity of another individual • Humans produce pheromones • Pheremonal secretion is released in perspiration • Attraction pheromones (used for mate attraction) • Repelling pheromones • Amino acid based: • Peptide hormones • Most of the hormones that are produced by the human body • Water soluble • Cannot pass across the plasma membrane of the cell without a receptor on the outside of the cell • Amino acid based • Steroid: • Derivatives of cholesterol • Fat soluble • Can diffuse across the plasma membrane • Receptors for steroid hormones are inside the cell (inside the nucleus) • If there is no receptor then the hormone will not have an effect • Minority are steroid hormones • Produced in gonads and cortex of the adrenal gland • Amino acid based • Steroid • Eicosanoid: • Biologically active lipids • Prostaglandins & Leukotrienes • Not true hormones • Because they are released by membranes and have affects in that local area (paracrines) • Ovulation • When woman ovulates, prostaglandins are released so that sperm know which way to go • Target cells • Any cell that has a receptor for that hormone • All living cells are bathed in blood, the hormones travel in the blood and any cell that has the receptor will draw in the hormone, those that don’t, wont. • Some cells have receptors for one hormone, some have receptors for more that one type of hormone. • Open or close ion channels •When they bind to receptors they can change the permeability of the cell by opening or closing ion channels • Open or close ion channels • Stimulate protein synthesis • Typically the protein that is produced is an enzyme or structural protein • Open or close ion channels • Stimulate protein synthesis • Activate or deactivate enzymes • Change the activity of proteins that already exist • Open or close ion channels • Stimulate protein synthesis • Activate or deactivate enzymes • Promote secretion • In some cases, the secretion that they are promoting is the secretion of another hormone. • Mucous • Chemicals • Open or close ion channels • Stimulate protein synthesis • Activate or deactivate enzymes • Promote secretion • Stimulate mitosis • Promote cell division • Each hormone does something different • Steroid • Amino acid-based •Receptors on plasma •Receptors inside cell membrane •Direct activation •Involves G proteins and • Don’t need a secondary secondary messengers messenger, already inside the cell • Internal protein • Usually the direct activation •Causes action within the of genes cell • Producing new proteins • Hormone diffuses through plasma membrane • Fat soluble so it can do this without a secondary messenger • Binds with intracellular receptor • Receptor is inside the nucleus, stays there until hormone comes • Activated complex binds to receptor protein on DNA • There is another receptor (promoter segment) on the DNA A steroid hormone directly • Transcription initiated stimulated the synthesis of • Production of an mRNA from the DNA new proteins • mRNA translated • Proteins produced • Could be enzymes, could be structural proteins • All amino acid based hormones operate with secondary messengers except the THYROID HORMONE • It functions like a steroid • Cyclic AMP mechanism • Secondary messenger is cAMP • PIP-calcium mechanism • Secondary messenger is PIP (making DAG and IP3) and calcium • Basically the same thing with different intermediaries • Hormone binds to membrane receptor • Because it cannot pass through the membrane on its own • Because it is water soluble • Modified receptor binds with G protein • G protein is activated • In this case GTP • Activated G protein activates adenylate cyclase • The G protein activates an enzyme • Adenylate cyclase generates cAMP from ATP • The enzyme makes cAMP to be produced from ATP • cAMP is the secondary messenger • cAMP stimulates protein kinase reactions • Activates other enzymes within the cell • Kinases cause proteins to be phosphorylated • Proteins are phosphorylated • Either activate them or deactivate them • Phosphodiesterase degrades cAMP • As long as there is hormone in the blood stream, the reaction will continue • It is short lived because the enzyme breaks it down • Hormone binds to membrane receptor • Because it is water soluble, it needs a secondary messenger to get through the plasma membrane • Receptor is on the surface of the cell • Modified receptor binds with G protein • G protein is activated • Activated G protein activates phospholipase • DIFFERENT ENZYME THAN LAST TIME • Phospholipase splits PIP into DAG an2 IP 3 • DAG activates protein kinases • Causes phosphorylation of proteins • IP 3riggers release of calcium from ER (endoplasmic reticulum) • Calcium acts as additional second messenger • DAG is 1 secondary messenger • IP3 is 2nd secondary messenger • End result depends on which proteins are activated and what calcium does • Hormone level in bloodstream • Low level secretion of hormones, low level of activity • More hormone we have, the more action it can provoke • # receptors in/on target cells • If we have a ton of hormones and no receptors… No activity • More receptors = more activity • Receptor affinity • Some receptors have a greater affinity for their hormones than others do • Each receptor is specific for a specific hormone LONG TERM RESPONSES TO HORMONES • Upregulation: • Stressed cause this to happen and now there is a greater response because more receptors were produced • Downregulation: • Number of receptors declines overtime • Whatever the stress is doesn’t have as much of an effect on us anymore • Permissiveness • One hormone requires a second hormone to exert its full effects • Sex hormones cause the development of the reproductive organs…Do it most efficiently in collaboration with thyroid hormones • Synergism • One hormone causes “this” effect, and another hormone causes same effect, together they work together to have a greater effect • Antagonism • Two hormones have opposite effects • Insulin & Glucagon • Balance each other out by lowering and raising blood sugar levels • Humoral • Levels of nutrients/ions in the bloodstream stimulate the endocrine gland • Neural • Stimulated by the nervous system • Hormonal • Secretion of the hormone by one gland, causes secretion of another hormone by another gland • Modified by nervous system • They function together • Inhibit the production of a hormone by negative feedback These secrete hormones: • Pituitary • Thyroid • Parathyroids • Adrenals • Pancreas • Gonads • Pineal • Thymus 2 portions (halves) that are not equal in size • Posterior pituitary • Neurohypophysis: came from nervous tissue • Outgrowth of the hypothalamus • Does not secrete hormones, but STORES them and releases them • Anterior pituitary • Adenohypophysis: outpouching of the oral cavity • Glandular in nature (secretes hormones) • Infundibulum • The stem that connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary NOT PRODUCED HERE. JUST STORED • Oxytocin •Amino-acid based •PIP-calcium • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) •Amino-acid based •PIP-calcium • Stimulates smooth (involuntary) muscle contraction • Childbirth • contraction of the uterus • Milk ejection • Positive feedback, response makes more and more • Sexual arousal, orgasm, sexual satisfaction • Promotes nurturing, affectionate behavior • “cuddle hormone” • Regulates water balance • Inhibits the production of urine • Alcohol suppresses ADH • You have to go to the bathroom a lot when you drink alcohol • If solute concentration is too high we hold urine in • Growth hormone (GH) • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) •Stimulates thyroid gland • Adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) • Gonadotropins • Prolactin • Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) •Pro-hormone, not a hormone, kind of like a hormone, could become a hormone • Greek • Trephein • Hormone whose target cells another endocrine gland • Stimulates another endocrine gland to produce another hormone • Stimulates cell growth and division, protein synthesis, fat metabolism and glucose conservation • GROWTH • Cell development • Does a lot to increase muscle and bone mass • Excess amount of GH in children produces giantism • Low levels of GH in children leads to pituitary dwarfism •Results in “younger” features, elvish • GH levels increasing in adults results in acromegaly •Enlarged hands, feet and face Two sisters; one on the left is • Hypothalamus secretes GHRH • Growth hormone releasing hormone • Anterior Pituitary isn’t going to do anything until this is secreted • Somatotropic cells of anterior pituitary begin GH synthesis • GH has both direct and indirect effects on tissues • Circulating GH triggers production of GHIH • Growth hormone inhibiting hormone • “Somatostatin” Shuts off somatotropic cells • Production of GH stops • Increases blood levels of fatty acids out of storage and into circulation • Fats from fat stores • Secreted from anterior pituitary • Decreases glucose uptake and metabolism • Retards uptake and metabolism of glucose • Leaves glucose in circulation • Encourages breakdown and release of glucose from glycogen in liver • Called diabetogenic effect (release of stored glucose) • Causes glucose to be released into blood stream • Operate through IGFs (proteins) • “Insulin like growth factors” • Somatomedlins: mediators • Produced in the liver • Stimulate uptake of amino acids from blood so that they can be made into cellular proteins • Stimulate uptake of sulfur into matrix of cartilage • Increases growth of cartilage (bone) • Stimulates development of and secretion from thyroid gland • “thyrotropin”: • Tropic hormone is one where target tissues are other endocrine tissues • This one effects the thyroid gland, through development and secretion • Activates the thyroid gland • Hypothalamus secretes TRH • Chemical produced by the hypothalamus (TRH) gets to the anterior pituitary • TRH causes thyrotrope cells of anterior pituitary to produce TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) • Increased levels of TSH inhibit both pituitary gland and hypothalamus • When the levels of TSH increase, the pituitary gland and hypothalamus slow production… therefore lowering levels of TSH • Also stimulate production of GHIH (Inhibiting growth hormone) • Stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones • Will stimulate all 3 corticosteroids Especially glucocorticoids • Tropic hormone – affects the adrenal gland • Adrenal gland functions to resist stress • Hypothalamus secretes CRH • Corticotropin releasing hormone • CRH stimulates corticotrope cells in the anterior pituitary to release ACTH • Increased levels of glucocorticoids stop CRH • As glucocorticocoids increase, levels of CRH lower • ACTH secretion stops • Fever, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) and stressors promote CRH release • Regulate functions of gonads • Testes and ovaries Two hormones are released by the anterior pituitary • Includes both FSH and LH • FSH stimulates gamete production (egg or sperm) • LH promotes production of gonadal hormones • Stimulates gonads to secrete fluids that have more hormones • FSH stimulates sperm production • LH stimulates interstitial cells of testes to produce testosterone • FSH stimulates ova (eggs) production • FSH and LH cause maturation of follicle • Luteinizing Hormone triggers ovulation and promotes synthesis of ovarian hormones •Estrogen •Progesterone • At puberty, hypothalamus secretes GnRH •Gonadotropin releasing hormone •Before puberty, there is no GnRH because of the pineal gland regulating it • GnRH stimulates gonadotrope cells in the anterior pituitary to secrete gonadotropins • Gonadotropins cause gonads to mature and begin producing hormones • Increased levels of gonad hormones suppress FSH and LH •As gonads produce hormones and they increase, that shuts off production of FSH and LH • Stimulates milk production by breasts • May enhance testosterone production in males • PRESENT IN BOTH GENDERS • Predominately in females though Usually inhibited when estrogen levels are low • High estrogen levels stimulates release • Estrogen stimulates lactotropes to secrete prolactin by suppressing PIH production • Prolactin inhibiting hormone is shut off • Prolactin production brief due to ovarian hormone cycling • If not fertilized, then estrogen levels drop, as well as prolactin • Decreased estrogen stimulates production of PIH from hypothalamus • Prolactin production stops • Predominately controlled by inhibiting hormone • High estrogen effects same • High estrogen stimulates prolactin • PRL triggered near end of pregnancy • Prolactin is triggered again near the end of pregnancy • Suckling maintains PRL production • As long as the mother is breastfeeding the child, then prolactin will continue to be produced • Lack of suckling and return of normal hormonal cycles brings about PIH production • Prolactin interrupts menstrual activity HORMONE- PRODUCING STRUCTURES Thyroid Gland Neck, surrounds the trachea, just below the larynx, below the adams apple •Two lobes connected by isthmus on the anterior side of the trachea •Largest true endocrine gland •Meaning that all it does is secrete hormones Histological Composition • Gland composed of follicles made up of epithelial cells • Produce thyroglobulin • Combines with iodine and then stored as colloid • Thyroid hormone comes from colloid • Also contain parafollicular cells • “clear (c) cells” • Produce calcitonin Thyroid Hormone (Thyroxin) • Actually 2 separate hormones • T 3 thyroglobulinth 3 iodines • T 4 thyroglobulinh 4 iodines • Most cells in the body have receptors for this except • Brain • Spleen • Testes • Thyroid gland itself • Uterus Functions of Thyroxin • Increases basal metabolic rate and heat production • Increases the breakdown of glucose • Side product = heat production • Calorigenic effect: production of heat through oxidation of glucose • Maintains blood pressure • Increases number of adrenergic receptors, which bind to norepinephrine (which is involved with vasoconstriction), which increases BP • Regulates tissue growth and development • Especially of the skeleton and the nervous system • Permissive hormone in conjunction with gonadotropins to produce sex organs Synthesis • Anterior pituitary secretes TSH which travels to thyroid gland via blood vessels • Thyroid gland is activated by TSH • TSH triggers production of thyroglobulin which accumulates in follicles • TSH triggers active transport of iodine into follicles • Thyroglobulin is iodized to form T and 1 T 2 • Depending on how many iodines it combines with • T and T link to form T and T 1 2 3 4 • T 3nd T are4packaged into lysosomes • Lysosomal enzymes free T and T an3 4 release them into bloodstream • Exocytosis bc of enzymes present in lysosomes Diurnal Cycle • Thyroid unique in that it can store hormone • Other endocrine glands don’t store it, they just secrete it • Stored as colloid • We store a 2-3 month supply of thyroid hormone • TSH peaks before sleep and remains high at night • Most thyroid activity occurs at night • Produced TH stored in extracellular colloid Transport • T3and T bi4d to transport proteins • Esp. TBG • Produced by the liver • Delivered to target cells and bind to intracellular receptors • Transcription results • T3 and T4 travel through the blood and bind to things to make them create their own proteins • Thyroid hormone is an amino acid base hormone that acts like a steriod Feedback • Increasing levels of T inhib4t TSH production • Increased levels of T4 shut off TSH • TSH is activated if T4 is low • Falling levels stimulate it • Increase in body energy needs stimulate release of TRH • Energy demands promote release of THYROID RELEASING HORMONE • High levels o sex hormones, iodine, GHIH, glucocoritcoids will inhibit TSH production Calcitonin • Produced by parafollicular cells • Called C cells • Lowers blood calcium levels • If we take calcium out of the blood, it goes to the bone… so this plays an important role when there is rapid bone growth • Childhood • Most important in periods of rapid skeleton growth and reformation Action • Inhibits osteoclast activity • Calcium stays in storage • Stimulates calcium uptake and deposition • Promotes ossification Feedback •High blood calcium levels are humoral stimuli (activate) for C cell activity • If theres a lot of calcium in the blood, C cell activity is activated so that we can store it •Low calcium levels inhibit C cell activity Parathyroid Gland • Embedded in in posterior portion of thyroid gland • Backside of the thyroid, around the trachea • 4 Histological Composition • Two types glandular cells • Oxyphil cells •NO IDEA WHAT THEY DO • Chief cells •Secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) • Most important hormone in controlling calcium balance of blood • Calcitonin pulls calcium out of the blood, mainly in childhood • Antagonist of calcitonin • Low calcium levels stimulate the release of parathyroid hormone • High calcium levels inhibit the release of PTH Action • Stimulates osteoclasts to release calcium and phosphates to blood • Calcitonin inhibited osteoclasts • Enhances reabsorption of calcium by kidneys • Instead of letting calcium be released as urine, it reabsorbs it • Increases absorption of calcium by intestines • Dietary calcium is absorbed by intestines • Intestines don’t really like to absorb calcium, PTH increases this affectiveness • Promotes kidneys to convert vitamin D to its active form, calcitriol (D ) • This vitamin D3 promotes calcium absorption in the intestines Adrenal Glands • Paired glands located atop each kidney •Each comprised of cortex and medulla (middle) •Medulla • Sympathetic nervous system • Releases norepinephrine •Cortex • Glandular epithelium •Each region has a hormonal function •Resist stress = major function of the adrenal gland Adrenal Cortex Hormones • Corticosteroids • Mineralocorticoids • Glucocorticoids • Gonadocorticoids Histological Composition • Zona glomerulosa • Mineralcoritcoids • Zona fasiculata • Glucocoritcoids • Zona reticularis • Gonadocorticoids Mineralocorticoids Made in the zona glomerulosa •Superficial part •Major hormone is aldosterone (95%) •Function to regulate electrolyte concentrations (minerals/ions) of extracellular fluids •Primarily sodium and potassium Action of aldosterone • Stimulates sodium reabsorption • CONSERVES SODIUM • In distal parts of kidney tubules • Also from sweat, saliva and gastric juice • Other ions and water linked to sodium • Therefore controls blood pressure and blood volume Feedback • Aldosterone secretion stimulated by: • High potassium levels • Low sodium levels • Low blood volume • Low blood pressure • If any of these happens – we stimulate the cortex to make aldosterone Mechanisms of Secretion • Renin-angiotensin mechanism • Long feedback triggered by blood pressure, kidneys secrete renin, liver produces angiotensin • BP and BV are related • Increased blood volume increases blood pressure • Low BP stimulates renin to be produced • Renin promotes production of active form angiotensin which stimulates adrenal cortex to produce aldosterone • Which cause kidneys to change their rate of filtration • No direct stimulation of adrenal cortex Mechanisms of Secretion • Renin-angiotensin mechanism • Plasma concentration mechanism • Either low sodium or high potassium in the blood directly stimulates the adrenal cortex • Aldosterone production is increased by the adrenal cortex • High sodium levels or potassium levels are low, adrenal cortex inhibits production of aldosterone Mechanisms of Secretion •Renin-angiotensin mechanism •Plasma concentration mechanism •ACTH mechanism • Stress causes an increase in CRH • CRH promotes ACTH production • ACTH will affect the aldosterone Mechanisms of Secretion • Renin-angiotensin mechanism • Plasma concentration mechanism • ACTH mechanism • Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) • ANP is produced by the heart • BP increases then the heart secretes ANP • therefore it reduces the amount of aldosterone •Renin is secreted in response to low BP Glucocorticoids •Major hormone is cortisol •Function to regulate energy metabolism of most body cells and resist stressors • Thyroid hormone is the major hormone regulating metabolic activity Action • Maintain blood sugar levels • Promotes process of Gluconeogenesis: production of new sugars • Kicks in after glucose from storage is used up • Keep blood sugar levels high • Cortisol stimulates production of glucose from other substances like fats and proteins • Maintain blood volume by preventing uptake of water by cells • Water stays in the bloodstream Feedback •Low blood sugar, hypothalamus secretes CRH •CRH causes anterior pituitary to produce ACTH which stimulates adrenal cortex to produce cortisol •As cortisol increases and inhibits both CRH and ACTH, it also shuts down cortisol Effects of Stress • Increase cortisol •Breaks down proteins so that gluconeogenesis can occur • Increase gluconeogenesis •Liberate fatty acids for energy •Break down proteins into amino acids •Assist in vasoconstriction • Increase in cortisol increases blood pressure Gonadocorticoids •DHEA is a major gonadocorticoid •Major hormones are weak androgens •These converted to testosterone and estrogen • Males produce testosterone in testes •Contribute to onset of puberty •Provide sex drive to women Feedback •ACTH production stimulates production of gonadocorticoid •ACTH is major contributor for glucocorticoid •Inhibition not noted •NO INHIBITORS Adrenal Medulla Hormones •Extension of the sympathetic nervous system •Epinephrine & Norephinephrine •Secreted in mass Histological Composition • Chromaffin cells are modified ganglionic sympathetic neurons • Modifications of sympathetic neuron endings • Adrenaline- adrenal medulla secretes Action •Stress promotes release by stimulating sympathetic nervous system •Blood sugar levels rise •Blood vessels constrict •Heart beat increases •Blood pressure rises •Blood is diverted to brain, heart, skeletal muscles and preganglionic sympathetic nerve endings in adrenal medulla •THINK: Adrenaline – fight or flight •5 different secretions all from adrenal gland Pancreas •Located in abdomen, behind stomach •Has both exocrine and endocrine components Histological Composition • Acinar cells • Secretes enzymes, pancreatic amylases, to do with digestion • Pancreatic islets (Islets of Langerhans) • Alpha cells • Produce glucagon (hormone) • Beta cells • Produce insulin (hormone) • **glucagon and insulin are antagonists Glucagon •Functions on liver to release glucose into blood Actions • Breaks down glycogen into glucose • Synthesizes glucose from lactic acid and noncarbohydrate molecules • Releases glucose into blood Feedback • Low blood sugar levels and high amino acid levels exert humoral control •And reverse •Humoral signal – detected in bloodstream •High blood sugar inhibits glucagon • Sympathetic stimulation of medulla promotes release •Epinephrine or norephrineprine – medulla releases • Somatostatin also inhibits release Insulin •Lowers blood sugar levels •Influences protein and fat metabolism •Think: diabetes Actions • Enhances membrane transport of glucose into cells •Promotes glucose uptake (get it out of bloodstream) • Inhibits breakdown of glycogen into glucose •Build up glycogen instead • Inhibits conversion of amino acids or fats to glucose • Promotes oxidation of glucose (promotes ATP) • A lot of sugar in glycogen, insulin promotes conversion of glycogen to fat Feedback • High blood sugar levels stimulate production • Also high levels of fatty acids and amino acids • Humoral mechanism • Parasympathetic release of acetylcholine stimlates release • Stimulates beta cells • Hormonal influences also exist Gonads •Testes •Ovaries •Produce same sex hormones as adrenal cortex Sex Hormones •Male •Female • Testosterone – most • Estrogen prominent hormone in • Progesterone males • Produced in concentration in females Actions • Testosterone • Maturation and maintenance of male reproductive organs • Secondary sex characteristics • Sex drive • Sperm production • Estrogen • Maturation of female reproductive organs • Secondary sex characteristics • Progesterone • Functions with estrogen to: • Promote breast development • Cause cyclic changes in uterine lining Feedback •Regulated by gonadotropin •Produced in the anterior pituitary Pineal Gland •Extends from roof of third ventricle in diencephalon Histological Composition •Pinealocytes • Produces melatonin Melatonin •Promotes drowsiness •Inhibits sexual maturation •Therefore helps time puberty Thymus •Deep to sternum in thorax •Size diminishes with age • Most active prior to birth • Most activity during embryonic development and right after birth Hormones • Thymoproteins • Amino acid based hormones produced by thymus • Thymic factor • Thymosins • Thymus stimulates the development of T lymphocytes – blood cells that specialize in immunity Other Hormone Producers • Heart • ANP – Atrial natriuretic The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the ﬁle again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. peptide • Affects kidneys and inhibits aldosterone • Controls blood pressure in part by increasing urinary excretion of sodium Other Hormone Producers • Heart image and then insert it again.mputer, and then open the ﬁle again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the • ANP • Gastrointestinal tract • Regulates digestive activity • Move things through intestine Other Hormone Producers • Heart The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your • ANP computer, and then open the ﬁle again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. • Gastrointestinal tract • Placenta: only developed when pregnant • Estrogen • Progesterone • hCG • Human chorionic gonadotropin • Levels on a pregnancy test read hCG • Used to be used as a diet aid Other Hormone Producers • Heart • ANP • Gastrointestinal tract • Placenta • Estrogen • Progesterone • hCG • Kidneys • Erythropoietin •blood cellsproduction of red Other Hormone Producers • Heart • ANP • Gastrointestinal tract • Placenta • Estrogen • Progesterone • hCG • Kidneys • Erythropoietin • Skin • Cholecalciferol • Form of vitamin D3 • Converted to active form in liver • Increases calcium absorption in the intestines Other Hormone Producers • Heart computer, and then open the ﬁle again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.ed. Restart your • ANP • Gastrointestinal tract • Placenta • Estrogen • Progesterone • hCG • Kidneys • Erythropoietin • Skin • Cholecalciferol • Adipose tissue • Leptin • Decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure • When we begin to take in more energy than were using – leptin is secreted • Resistin: leptin antagonist; shuts off insulin Endocrine Gland Development • Arise from all three germ layers • Aging changes rate of hormone production • Can be affected by environmental cues Function of the reproductive system is to reproduce • Testes • Gland of gamete production • Scrotum • Epididymis • Ductus deferens • Ejaculatory duct • Urethra • Penis • Seminal vesicles • Prostate gland • Bulbourethral glands • Everything else is for storage and release of gamete • Lobules • Each section is a lobule • Seminiferous tubules • PRODUCE SPERM • Millions of sperm are produced every day, and either released or reabsorbed by the body and broken down • Tubulusrectus • Rete testis • Efferent ductules • Epididymis • Stores sperm • Seminiferous tubules • Interstitial cells • Produce testosterone • Supplied by testicular arteries • Pass through pampiniform plexus • Web of veins • Drained by testicular veins • Temperature of testes is kept below body temperature • 3 degrees C below (34 degrees C) • Sperm are housed here in the scrotum • Sac-like structure composed of skin and superficial fascia • Testes separated into compartments • Allows maintenance of optimal temperature • Sometimes you need to change how far away they are from the body to help get the right temperature • Via dartos and cremaster muscles move it to get it further away • If cold, constrict muscles and pull them closer to the body • If warm, they try to move away • Scrotum and penis constitute the male EXTERNAL genitalia • Specialized copulatory organ • Glans (head) covered with prepuce • Foreskin covers the head of the penis • Culturally this is removed- circumcision • This is an aiming device • Way to transfer the sperm into the female • Corpus spongiosum • One • Surrounds the urethra • Corpora cavernosa • two • Both spongy network of connective tissue, smooth muscle and vascular space • Spongy tissue • Lots of space • Upon sexual arousal, blood vessels dilate, penis gets larger and more rigid • Veins are compressed and cannot drain (erection) • Epididymis • Storage warehouse • Sperm will not leave here unless sexual arousal has occurred and continued until climax • Can be stored for months, if not used then they are phagocytized and broken down • Ductus (vas) deferens • If sexual arousal occurs until climax then the sperm that are stored in the epididymis will leave and travel through the vas deferens • Left and right – one from each testes • Sexual arousal ultimately results in muscle contraction • Vasectomy – method of contraception • Surgically cutting the vas deferens and cutting the two ends, no longer an in-tact tube, sperm cannot leave the body now • Male is sterile • 99.9% effective • Epididymis • Ductus (vas) deferens • Two • Ejaculatory ducts • Connect each vas deferens to a common urethra • Epididymis • Ductus (vas) deferens • Ejaculatory duct • Urethra • Single • Carries the sperm to be released from the males body • Has two functions • Passageway for sperm • Passageway for urine • Can create problems – bc urine is a caustic and not a good environment for sperm • Seminal vesicles • Paired, one on each side • Sympathetic nervous system • Ejaculation phase • Secrete an alkaline fluid • go ine reproductive tract is acidic, and toxic to sperm, this fluid neutralizes it so sperm can • Only secreted when aroused • Prostate gland • Single gland • Surrounds the origin of the urethra • Size of a quarter • 87+% of men will have enlargement of prostate as they age, most of that is benign, some is not • Sympathetic nervous activity • Ejaculation phase • Secretes enzymes and nutrient sources for the sperm • Only when sexually aroused • Helps the sperm to be energized • Bulbourethral glands • Paired • “cowpers glands” • Stimulated my parasympathetic nervous activity • Erection phase • Secrete mucus • Only upon sexual excitement These 3 glands together • Pre-ejaculatory fluid • Cleanses urethra produce semen – • Viscous – aids in lubrication Ejaculate consists of sperm and semen • Sexual arousal (which is typically visual for men, emotional/tactical for women) causes parasympathetic reflex to release nitric oxide at/near base of penis • NO causes arteriole dilation • Erectile bodies fill with blood • Corpora cavernosa expands, compressing drainage veins • Blood stays in penis • Bulbourethral glands also stimulated • Release mucus • Parasympathetic stimulation results in erection • P for point • If stimulation is mild, this is where it stops, if it increases… • Continued stimulation provokes massive sympathetic nerve discharge • Not a gradual increase, but explosive • Reproductive ducts and accessory glands contract, pushing contents into urethra • Smooth muscles to contract forcefully, expelling substances • Bladder sphincter muscle constricts • Close off the connection between the bladder and the urethra, so that urine doesn’t come through • Muscles of penis undergo rapid series of contractions • Semen propelled from penis • Expulsion of the fluids – orgasm • Sympathetic - shoot • 400 million sperm are produced everyday • Everyday, from puberty until death • Diploid spermatogonia undergo mitosis to produce type A and B daughter cells • Type A stays at basement membrane • Type B cells are primary spermatocytes • Will become sperm • Primary spermatocytes (Type B) undergo spermatocytesbecome two secondary • Still diploid at this point (primary spermatocytes) • Haploid after meiosis I • Secondary spermatocytes undergo meiosis II to become spermatids • Haploid when secondary spermatocytes • One spermatagonia gives us 4 viable sperm • These 4 sperm cells are genetically different from one another • Spermatid decreases cytoplasmic volume and forms a tail • Gets rid of cytoplasm, doesn’t need the extra weight • Finished product known as spermatozoon • Started looking like a regular cell and now looks like a specialized modified structure • Head is genetic material • Covering- aphrozome • Vesicle that contains enzymes that are needed to penetrate the outer layers of the egg • Midpiece • Huge collection of mitochondira • Sperm needs energy to swim around • Prostate gland releases nutrients and enzymes.. Sugars for it to absorb • Tail • Flagellum • “Nurse cells” • Protect developing spermatocyes from immune system • tries to destroy thems foreign cells and • Blood-testis barrier • Nourish dividing cells • Move cells to lumen • Secrete testicular fluid • Functions as transport medium in lumen • Dispose of eliminated cytoplasm • Regulate spermatogenesis • Takes between 64-72 days to become a immature sperm from a primary spermatocyte • Regulated by hormonal influences • Hypothalamus releases GnRH • Gonadotropin releasing hormone • Stimulates anterior pituitary • GnRH stimulates release of pituitary gonadotropins • FSH and LH • Follicle Stimulating hormone • Luteinizing hormone • FSH stimulates Sertoli cells to release androgen-binding protein (ABP) • Activates nurse cells to secrete a protein that will bind with testosterone so that the testosterone will accumulate on spermatagonia and then cause them to divide • ABP causes spermatogonia to accumulate testosterone • FSH stimulates production of sperm • LH causes interstitial cells to secrete testosterone • Also small amount of estrogen • Works with FSH • Testosterone is necessary to activate the division process • Stimulates spermatogenesis • Promotes production of sperm • Inhibits GnRH • Shuts off GnRH • People who take anabolic steroids are usually sterile • Inhibits gonadotropin release • Has anabolic effects on accessory reproductive organs • Causes them to enlarge, develop, grow • Promotes male secondary sex characteristics Remember: both • Facial hair males and females • Deeper voice • Oily skin/hair produce testosterone • Muscle mass larger in males than females • Boosts BMR • Boots metabolic activity • Teenage boys burn energy like crazy and don’t gain a pound • Influence behavior • Promotes aggressiveness • Promotes sex drive • Produced by Sertoli cells (nurse cells) when sperm count is high • If the sperm arent being used, because a lot are made every day • Inhibits release of FSH and GnRH • Shuts off the production of new sperm • Ovaries • Female reproductive organ • Where gamete is produced • Oviducts • Uterus • Vagina • External genitalia • Mammary glands • Gametes formed in cortex • Site of gamete production • Females are born with all the gametes they will ever have • Not matured or developed until puberty • Outer part – cortex • Gametes are formed here • Inner part- medulla • Gametes exist as structures called ovarian follicles • Oocyte plus follicular or granulosar cells • Follicular cells – 1 cell layer • Granulosar cells – more than 1 cell layer • Primordial follicle • Born with these • When oocyte is surrounded by follicular cells • Most of them will stay primordial • Only some will “ripen” • Primordial follicle • Primary follicle • Second layers of cells • We start to see granulosar cells • Primordial follicle • Primary follicle • Secondary follicle • A fluid filled space forms • Antrum • Primordial follicle • Primary follicle • Secondary follicle • Graafian follicle • Gets an abscess, like a blister • Fluid filled space has gotten bigger • Oocyte sits off of a stock • Key characteristic • Primordial follicle • Primary follicle • Secondary follicle • Graafian follicle • Ovulation • Release of gamete (egg) and fluid from the ovary • Body temperature elevates at ovulation • Ovary is not directly connected to path like in males • Mucus thins and gets more watery to allow the sperm easier passage through the cervix • Robitussion cough syrup thins mucus ** • Primordial follicle • Primary follicle • Secondary follicle • Graafian follicle • Ovulation • Corpus luteum • After the follicle releases the egg, the empty cavity fills with blood, it reabsorbs and forms the corpus luteum • Glandular structure that secretes hormones, tells the uterus to “be ready” • If implantation occurs, corpus luteum stays • If no implantation occurs, it will degenerate and form a scar in the ovary • Ovary does not directly connect to the oviduct, not a huge challenge • Ovulated oocyte released into peritoneal cavity • Ciliated fimbriae (fingers of the oviduct) sweep oocyte into oviduct • “Fallopian tubes” • Through infundibulum (entry to oviduct), past ampulla, into isthmus • Fertilization is in the ampulla usually • Fimbriae are ciliated • They beat to draw the egg toward the oviduct • Ultimately transported to uterus • Cilia line the oviduct and also peralisis push the egg down to uterus • Normal site of implantation • Ectopic implantation- if not in uterus, life threatening to baby and mom • Thick-walled muscular organ that receives, retains and nourishes fertilized ovum • Consists of: • Body • Fundus • Above entry of oviducts • Cervix • Neck • Internal os • External os • Diameter of human hair • Os connect to vagina • At delivery, os dilates to 10cm • If implantation occurs, os is plugged (mucus plug) which prevents entry of foreign substances into developing embryo Where the ovum starts to implant • Stratum functionalis • Functional and starts to build up the wall and if no implantation it sluffs off and sheds (period) • Stratum basalis • Stays after everything is sluffed • Female organ of copulation • Birth canal • When birth is happening it has to pass back through here • Acidic environment • Acids are here to prevent infection • These acids cause dilemma for sperm • Seminal vesicle fluids protect sperm • Hymen • Thin membrane tissue • Covers the external opening • Used to show purity if still there • Gets torn • Penis was “aiming device” • Vagina is “docking area” • Mon pubis • Deposition of fatty tissue on top of the pelvic girdle • Covered with hair • Labia majora • External labia • Female counterpart of the scrotum • Folds • Labia minora • Inner layer • Folds • No hair • Greater vestibular glands • Bulbourethral glands of the female • Produces the mucus for lubrication • Clitoris • Composed of erectile tissue • During sexual stimulation this will engorge with blood • Populated by a number of sensory nerve endings (excitability) • Perineum • Piece of tissue that is between vulva and anus • Cut before birth usually to allow opening to be larger (episiotomy) Produce milk to nourish newborn • Lobes • Big Compartments • Lobule • What lobes are divided into • Alveoli • Site of milk production • Lactiferous ducts • Connected to alveoli • What milk passes through • Lactiferous sinus • Where the lactiferous ducts combine • Large area before nipple • Nipple • Spicket that allows access for milk • Aroela • Pigmented tissue surrounding the nipple Stars before birth, gets suspended until puberty, starts again at puberty, ends at menopause Produce gamete cells and supporting cells – stored as follicles. • Diploid oogonia undergo mitosis to produce primary oocytes • Diploid oogonium splits to produce TWO primary oocytes • Primary oocytes incorporate follicular cells • Primordial follicles are primary oocytes surrounded by follicular cells • Primary oocytes start, but do not complete, meiosis I • Arrested at prophase I • Roughly 2 million primordial follicles in the ovaries at birth • This is total. • Most get resorbed • Roughly 400,000 left at puberty • Roughly 500 gametes will be produced (one a month) • Meiosis I completes and produces the first polar body and a secondary oocyte •Polar body creates initial yolk sack and nourishment for egg • First polar body undergoes meiosis II and produces two polar bodies • Secondary oocyte begins meiosis II but arrests at metaphase II •Doesn’t finish meiosis • Secondary oocyte is ovulated •Stays in the follicle as secondary oocyte and that what ovulates • If sperm fertilizes: • Secondary oocyte completes meiosis II • Produces ovum and polar body • End up with 3 polar bodies and one ovum • If no fertilization: • Secondary oocyte degenerates • Gets lost when uterine lining is sluffed • Single oogonium produces one secondary oocyte ** 28 days on average (21-40 days range) • Follicular phase • This is where variability occurs • Dominated by growth of follicles • Primary – primordial – secondary- etc. • Everything before ovulation • Ovulation • Event where oocyte is released from ovary • Luteal phase • ALWAYS 14 DAYS • Directed by corpus luteum • Everything after ovulation • Primordial follicle becomes primary follicle • Number of layers of cells surrounding the oocyte increases • Primary follicle becomes secondary follicle • Key signature of secondary follicle is the antrum • Antrum: fluid filled space • Primordial follicle becomes primary follicle • Primary follicle becomes secondary follicle • Theca folliculi forms • Layer of connective tissue that surrounds the follicle • Theca and granulosa cells produce estrogens • A developing follicle produces estrogen • Primordial follicle becomes primary follicle • Primary follicle becomes secondary follicle • Theca folliculi forms • Theca and granulosa cells produce estrogens • Zona pellucida forms • Semi-transparent membrane surrounding oocyte • Glyco-protein rich • Creates barrier for sperm • Acrosomes eat through this • Primordial follicle becomes primary follicle • Primary follicle becomes secondary follicle • Theca folliculi forms • Theca and granulosa cells produce estrogens • Zona pellucida forms • Antrum forms • Fluid filled cavity • Primordial follicle becomes primary follicle • Primary follicle becomes secondary follicle • Theca folliculi forms • Theca and granulosa cells produce estrogens • Zona pellucida forms • Antrum forms • Secondary follicle becomes Graafian follicle (vesicular follicle) • 1 inch in diameter Primary Secondary • Corona radiata forms • Blister on the surface of the ovary Graafian • What actually ruptures • Specific moment when the ovary wall ruptures and expels secondary oocyte and corona radiata into peritoneal cavitity • Increase in body temperature • Likelihood of producing twins increases with age • As you age, more oocytes are more likely to be ovulated • Fraternal twins (2 secondary oocytes are are ovulated) • Can be same or different sex • Identical twins (1 secondary oocyte is ovulated and split after fertilization) • Must be same sex • When the Graafin follicle ruptures and fills with blood: Corpus hemorrhagicum forms • Antrum is blood filled and not fluid filled • Corpus hemorrhagicum resorbs • Feca and granulosa produce hormones and makes corpus luteum • Corpus hemorrhagicum forms • Corpus hemorrhagicum resorbs, but granulosa and theca cells produce corpus luteum • Corpus hemorrhagicum forms • Corpus hemorrhagicum resorbs, but granulosa and theca cells produce corpus luteum • If fertilization, Corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogen •Continues until placenta forms if fertilization •degenerateslization, corpus luteum • Corpus hemorrhagicum forms • Corpus hemorrhagicum resorbs, but granulosa and theca cells produce corpus luteum • Corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogen • Continues until placenta forms if fertilization • Becomes corpus albicans if no fertilization • Prior to puberty, ovaries produce estrogen and this inhibits GnRH THEN @ puberty– The hypothalamus changes its sensitivity to estrogen… • Hypothalamus secretes GnRH •Released in rhythmic pulses • Not stable at first • Stable hormonal cycling occurs with first period • GnRH promotes FSH and LH production in anterior pituitary • FSH stimulates follicle cells, causing growth and maturation of follicle • Ripening of follicle • LH causes thecal cells to produce androgens •Androgens converted to estrogen by granulosa cells • Initial rise in estrogen level inhibits release of FSH and LH •Anterior pituitary is still producing them, just not RELEASING • Stimulates follicle development •Therefore increases estrogen production • Increasing estrogen level causes burst of LH •LH surge • Beginning of estrogen causes storage of LH, and no release, then continuation of estrogen cause big burst of LH • Anabolic effects on female reproductive tract • Growth of female reproductive tract • Support short-term growth spurt of girls at puberty • Girls start to grow before boys • Promotes female secondary sex characteristics • Loss of hair • Reduction of oils • Reduction of hair • Deposition of fats • LH surge stimulates completion of meiosis I by dominant primary follicle • Stimulates ovulation • This inhibits estrogen production • Transforms ruptured follicle into corpus luteum • some estrogen productionrone and • When waiting to see if there is an egg fertilized and implanted, progesterone inhibits another egg from coming down until we know its ready • Fertilization doesn’t occur, then corpus luteum degenerates and stops producing progesterone • Inhibits FSH and LH production • Inhibit FSH and LH production Changes in endometrium due to hormonal secretions Day 1 of mentsrual cycle is day 1 of period • Menstrual phase • Proliferative phase • Secretory phase First 5 ish days • Ovarian hormones at lowest level •Corpus luteum has degenerated •Hormone levels have kind of stopped and LH againtarted producing FSH • Functional layer of endometrium detaches •Lining of uterus that has thickened and ready for implantation sluffs off • Menstruation occurs Roughly Day 6-14 • Estrogen levels increase • Follicles have begun producing estrogen • Endometrium rebuilds itself • Wall of uterus thickens again • Progesterone receptors develop in endometrial cells Day 15-28 produced by corpus luteume- • Progesterone causes implantation and forms cervical plug • Thick mucus produced by cervical canal so that things cannot get in uterus • Decreasing progesterone and LH levels initiate breakdown of endometrium • breaks down and progesterone levels decrease • Arousal similar to male • Other than that males are visual and females and tactile and psychological • Blood engorgement • Clitoris and deep behind vaginal wall • Mammary glands • Nose – sexual stimulation causes people to have stuffy nose • Collection of blood in cavernous tissues due to parasympathetic nervous stimulation • Vestibular gland activity • Secrete mucus • Orgasm does not include ejaculation of fluids or refractory period • Male climax needs time to recover before he can be aroused again (refractory period) • There can be repeated orgasmic responses in females • Muscle tension • Uterine contractions • Sympathetic • Increased blood pressure • General sense of pleasure and relaxation • Not required for fertilization • Required in males for fertilization bc the sperm have to be ejaculated • Gender determined by genetic composition of sperm • Gender determined by MALE • Females produce X • Males produce either X or Y • SRY gene controls testis development • Present: BOY • Embryo sexually indifferent until approx. 2 months post-conception • Gender neutral for 2 months • Gonadal development begins around week 5 • Gonadal ridges begin formation about 5 weeks post-conception • Müllerian and Wolffianducts develop • Mullerian ducts are maintained by the female • Wolffianducts will be maintained by males (men are wolves) • Primordial germ cells are deposited • Gonium • Either spermatagonium or oogonium • Genital tubercle develops • Contains: • These will become the external genitalia • Urethral groove • External opening of urogenital sinus • Urethral folds • Sides of the urethra • Labioscrotal swellings • Get one or the other • Outsides of the urethral folds • SRY gene is present • Seminiferous tubules form in gonadal ridges and link with Wolffianducts • Developing testes secrete AMH (anit- mullerian hormone) which causes Müllerian duct to degenerate • Genital tubercle enlarges to form penis • Urethral folds fuse to form urethra • Labioscrotal folds fuse to form scrotum • Testosterone production guides secondary sexual development • Testes descend into scrotum approx 2 months before birth • NO SRY gene • Gonadal ridges form ovaries • Follicles form in cortex of ovaries • Müllerian ducts differentiate • Wolffianducts degenerate • Genital tubercle gives rise to clitoris • Urethral groove becomes vestibule • Urethral folds stay unfused and become labia minora • Labioscrotal folds stay unfused and become labia majora • Ovaries also descend, but only to pelvic brim • Sperm fuses with secondary oocyte • Forms zygote • Sperm viable for up to 72 hours • Secondary oocyte viable for up to 24 hours after ovulation • Therefore sex has to occur either 3 days before or 1 day after ovulation if you want to get pregnant • Gestation 280 days from the last period • Lose of sperm form vagina • Vagina’s acidic environment • Consistency of cervical mucus • Phagocytic cells in uterus • Closer sex to ovulation – more likely to be sperm bc theyre faster • TIMING • Sperm that make males are faster • Sperm that make females are slower • STRESS LEVELS • More stress –females • Sperm incapable of fertilization immediately after ejaculation •They have to go through some changes • Membrane changes give sperm ability to fertilize •Thins front membrane •Requires 6-8 hours • Also changes in tail activity •Mobile •Whiplash • There are receptors on the surface of the egg • Allow sperm to bind • Sperm binds with zona pellucida • Glycoprotein membrane that surrounds the egg • Acrosomal enzymes release to immediate area • Accomplished by 100s of sperm • Takes the combined efforts of 100s of sperm to get into the egg • 1 one that gets there usually isnt the one that is going to fertilize • Allows sperm penetration • Fast block • Membrane depolarization • Instantaneous event • As soon as first sperm penetrates plasma membrane of egg • NOT ZONA PELLUCIDA, but plasma membrane • Causes sodium channels to open • Depolarizes the egg, so sperm cannot attach to it anymore • Release of stored calcium destroys receptors on the surface • Binds water • Slow block • Cortical reaction • Occurs 6-7 days after ovulation • Takes about a week to move from oviduct to uterine wall • Takes about a week • To implant • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) maintains corpus luteum • hCG is secreted and it makes corpus luteum stay, which maintains lining of the uterus • Produces progesterone and estrogen until pla