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Organic Chemistry (CEM 251, Walker)

by: Jennifer Lough

Organic Chemistry (CEM 251, Walker) CEM 251

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Chemistry > CEM 251 > Organic Chemistry CEM 251 Walker
Jennifer Lough
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These are the notes from the first week of the class that include what Dr. Walker said, wrote, or thought, as well as a few additions and clarifications I added later.
Organic Chemistry
Dr. Walker
Class Notes
Organic Chemistry, Chemistry
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Lough on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CEM 251 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Walker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry in Chemistry at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 01/13/16
Week 1 Monday, January 18, 2016 12:17 PM Organic Chemistry: study of carbon-containing molecules and their reactions. The nucleus is made of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons, some of which are closer to the nucleus than others. All interactions happen between valence electrons. Use the numbers above the periodic table columns (groups) to find the number of valence electrons an atom of that element will have. Prof. Walker recommends the following dot structure: Lewis Structures: Draw individual atom using dots to represent valence electrons. Put the atoms together so they share pairs of electrons to make complete octets. Formal charge: valence electrons - #bonds - #unpaired electrons Atoms sharing electrons within a molecule can also have unbalanced charges, which must be analyzed because it affects stability. Orbitals Identified by shape. Orbital is the region where there is a 90% chance of finding an electron. Highest stability is in the s orbital. 2s orbital has a node, which is the point in space where there will neverbe an electron. When 2s is full, electrons fill 3 degenerate p orbitals. Inner electrons are lower energy and lessreactive. Valence electrons are high energy and more reactive. There is more energy in the higher orbital. HybridizedAtomic Orbitals Carbon must undergo hybridization to form 4 equal atomic orbitals. All orbitals must have equal energy to form 4 symmetrical C--H bonds. sp3 orbitals have three half-filledp degenerate orbitals. Excitation causes the electrons from 2s to jump up and fill the space on p, allowing 4 bonds to form. spx (x varies) Y= count lone pairs and atoms attached to target atom. Y=1+x to find hybridization in p. sp2 hybridized carbon will have 3 equal energy sp2 orbitals and one unhybridized p orbital. All bonded atoms will contain a sigmabond. Single bonds are sigma. Double bonds are 1 sigma and 1 pi. Triple bonds are 1 sigma and 2 pi. Each molecule only forms 1 sigma bond with another molecule. Sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds because their electrons are close to the nucleus. Pi bonds are less stable and easier to break. sp-sp orbitals are closer together than sp3-sp3 because sp-sp are shaped more like the s orbital than the p.


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