Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes 2420-001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Trokel on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2420-001 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by S. Nelson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health Performance in Psychlogy at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 01/13/16
Chapter 7 Proteins Proteins In the Body Specific types include ● collagen structural, in cartilage , ligaments, and bones ● contractile proteins nable muscles to move ● keratin in hair, nails, and skin ● Clotting proteins eeded for blood clotting Some hormones are proteins hormones chemical messengers that regulate body processes and responses (insulin and glucagon) Nearly all enzymes are proteins enzymes speed up chemical reactions without becoming part of the products Neurotransmitters send signals from one nerve cell to another Transport Proteins oxygen and many nutrients are transported in blood by special proteins such as albumin Normal Fluid Balance and Edema (swelling) proteins in the blood help maintain the proper distribution of fluids within the bloodstream and body tissues and pH balance. Amino Acids Proteins are made of smaller units called mino acids There are 20 different amino acids in human proteins Monomer smallest unit to make it through the microvilli the monomer of a protein is an amino acid Each amino acid is composed of 1) an amino or a nitrogencontaining group (amino group has nitrogen bonded to 2 hydrogen atoms) 2) Rgroup varies with each amino acid 3) acid group acid portion Classifying Amino Acids Essential Cannot be made by the body must be supplied by the diet 9 of the 20 amino acids NonEssential Can be made by the body 11 of the 20 amino acids ★ an average person needs about 50 60 proteins a day Proteins in foods Nearly all foods contain some protein, but no natural food is 100% protein Animal foods typically have more protein than plant foods ★ some breads and legumes contain protein Legumes What are legumes ? plants that produce pods with a single row of seeds ex: soybeans, peas, peanuts, lentils, and beans Protein Quality ● High quality protein (complete protein) ○ Contains all 9 essential amino acids in amounts that support growth ○ most animal products ○ high quality plant foods: quinoa and processed soy ● Low quality ○ Lacks or has inadequate amounts of one or more of the essential amino acids (but not all) ○ Most plant foods and gelatin (animal tissue byproduct) What happens to protein in the body? How your body synthesizes proteins Cells assemble the 20 amino acids in specific sequences according to information provided in DNA Amino acids are connected or held together by peptide bonds Peptides Chains of less than 15 amino acids Polypeptides proteins made of two or more amino acids Sickle Cell Anemia If the DNA code is faulty, the wrong amino acid may be inserted into a protein, causing detrimental effects such as defective hemoglobin sickle cell anemia is an inherited condition that affects red blood cells CLICKER QUESTIONS WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS INCORRECTLY MATCHES WITH ITS FUNCTION—STRUCTURAL PROTEINS, COLLAGEN, THAT ARE FOUND IN CARTILAGE AND SKIN ADEQUATE PROTEIN IS ESSENTIAL FOR WHICH BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES?— BLOOD CLOTTING, THE CANALIZATION OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND ANTIBODIES. Protein Denaturation Altering a protein's natural shape and function by exposing it to various conditions, including heat, alcohol, acid, and physical agitation. ● heat denatures protein in raw eggs ● acidic lemon juice “curdles” protein in milk ● hydrochloric acid denatures food proteins in stomach, making them easy to digest ● physical agitation includes whipping foods, such as beating egg whites to incorporate air into them brain damage with a high fever because of protein denaturation Protein Turnover ● Turnover ○ breaking down old or unneeded proteins into amino acids and recycling the amino acids ● Amino acid “pool” ○ amino acids that have not been incorporated into proteins ■ Endogenous amino acids ■ Exogenous Nitrogen (Protein) Balance How much Protein do you Need/ Daily protein needs of healthy adults: RDA = .8g/kg body weight Protein needs increase during periods of growth, pregnancy, lactation, and recovery from illness or injury Eating Well for less Substitute eggs, milk, cheese and yogurt for meat, fish, or poultry Make meals that contain less animal proteins and more plant proteins extend cereal proteins with eggs and milk Include more legumes in meals Combining Complementary Proteins complementary combinations mixing certain plant foods to provide all essential amino acids without adding animal proteins amino acids often low or limiting in plant proteins tryptophan, threonine, lysine, and methionine Is Vegetarianism a healthy Lifestyle? Pros: compared to nonvegetarians, vegetarians tend to weigh less have less heart disease (eat less saturated fat and cholesterol) often exercise more, meditate for relaxation, and avoid tobacco and alcohol Cons: if diets are poorly planned vegetarians may lack calories high quality protein omega 3 fatty acids vitamins b12 and D Zinc, iron and calcium Vegetarian Children and Teens ● Children may be difficult to consume adequate protein and energy, because plant foods tend to be filing ○ Growth rates of vegan children need close monitoring ● Teens ○ pro :can be a healthy diet because more fruits and vegetables are consumed ○ con: may be at risk or anorexia Protein Adequacy excessive meat protein intake : may increase risk of heart disease and cancers of the colon/ rectum and possibly prostate Highprotein diets are generally not recommended for healthy individuals Excess protein intake can lead to higher than normal urinary losses of calcium and dehydration Protein Deficiency uncommon in the US may occur in: elderly or low income people persons with alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, or intestinal tract disorders Kwashiorkor and Marasmus Kwashiorkor Adequate energy intake but intake of highquality protein is low edema Marasmus starvation extreme weight loss Allergy inflammatory response resulting when body’s immune system reacts inappropriately to a substance that is typically harmless Allergen the offending substance
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