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Week 2 Notes

by: Emma Trokel

Week 2 Notes 2420-001

Emma Trokel

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Week 2's notes
Nutrition and Health Performance
S. Nelson
Class Notes




Popular in Nutrition and Health Performance

Popular in Psychlogy

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Trokel on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2420-001 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by S. Nelson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health Performance in Psychlogy at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 01/13/16
Chapter 7 ­ Proteins      Proteins In the Body  Specific types include ­  ● collagen ­structural, in cartilage , ligaments, and bones  ● contractile proteins ​nable muscles to move  ● keratin ­in hair, nails, and skin  ● Clotting proteins ​eeded for blood clotting     ­ Some hormones are proteins ­  ­ hormones ­ ​chemical messengers that regulate body processes and responses  (insulin and glucagon)  ­ Nearly all enzymes are proteins ­  ­ enzymes speed up chemical reactions without becoming part of the products     ­ Neurotransmitters ­ send signals from one nerve cell to another   ­ Transport Proteins ­  oxygen and many nutrients are transported in blood by special  proteins such as a​lbumin     Normal Fluid Balance and Edema (swelling)   ­ proteins in the blood help maintain the proper distribution of fluids within the bloodstream  and body tissues and pH balance.     Amino Acids  Proteins are made of smaller units called ​mino acids  There are 20 different amino acids in human proteins     Monomer ​ ­ smallest unit to make it through the microvilli    ­ the monomer of a protein is an amino acid     Each amino acid is composed of ­  1) an amino or a nitrogen­containing group ­ (amino group has nitrogen bonded to 2  hydrogen atoms)  2) R­group ­ varies with each amino acid  3) acid group ­ acid portion     Classifying Amino Acids ­   Essential ­ Cannot be made by the body  ­ must be supplied by the diet  ­ 9 of the 20 amino acids    Non­Essential ­​Can be made by the body  ­ 11 of the 20 amino acids           ★ an average person needs about 50 ­ 60 proteins a day     Proteins in foods ­   ­ Nearly all foods contain some protein, but no natural food is 100% protein   ­ Animal foods typically have more protein than plant foods    ★ some breads and legumes contain protein   Legumes ­   ­What are legumes ? ­   ­ plants that produce pods with a single row of seeds   ex: soybeans, peas, peanuts, lentils, and beans     Protein Quality  ● High quality protein (complete protein)  ○ Contains all 9 essential amino acids in amounts that support growth   ○ most animal products  ○  high ­ quality plant foods: quinoa and processed soy   ● Low quality   ○ Lacks or has inadequate amounts of one or more of the essential amino acids  (but not all)  ○ Most plant foods and gelatin (animal tissue byproduct)    What happens to protein in the body?  ­ How your body synthesizes proteins ­  ­ Cells assemble the 20 amino acids in specific sequences according to  information provided in DNA  ­ Amino acids are connected or held together by peptide bonds   ­ Peptides   ­ Chains of less than 15 amino acids  ­ Polypeptides   ­ proteins made of two or more amino acids     Sickle Cell Anemia  If the DNA code is faulty, the wrong amino acid may be inserted into a protein, causing  detrimental effects such as defective hemoglobin  ­ sickle cell anemia is an inherited condition that affects red blood cells              CLICKER QUESTIONS ­   WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS INCORRECTLY MATCHES WITH ITS  FUNCTION—STRUCTURAL PROTEINS, COLLAGEN, THAT ARE FOUND IN CARTILAGE  AND SKIN     ADEQUATE PROTEIN IS ESSENTIAL FOR WHICH BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES?— BLOOD  CLOTTING, THE CANALIZATION OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND ANTIBODIES.          Protein Denaturation   Altering a protein's natural shape and function by exposing it to various conditions, including  heat, alcohol, acid, and physical agitation.  ● heat denatures protein in raw eggs   ● acidic lemon juice “curdles” protein in milk   ● hydrochloric acid denatures food proteins in stomach, making them easy to  digest  ● physical agitation includes whipping foods, such as beating egg whites to  incorporate air into them  ­ brain damage with a high fever because of  protein denaturation                   Protein Turnover  ● Turnover  ○ breaking down old or unneeded proteins into amino acids and recycling the  amino acids  ● Amino acid “pool”  ○ amino acids that have not been incorporated into proteins   ■ Endogenous amino acids  ■ Exogenous    Nitrogen (Protein) Balance      How much Protein do you Need/  Daily protein needs of healthy adults:  RDA = .8g/kg body weight    Protein needs increase during periods of growth, pregnancy, lactation, and recovery from illness  or injury          Eating Well for less  ­ Substitute eggs, milk, cheese and yogurt for meat, fish, or poultry  ­ Make meals that contain less animal proteins and more plant proteins  ­ extend cereal proteins with eggs and milk  ­ Include more legumes in meals    Combining Complementary Proteins   ­ complementary combinations  ­ mixing certain plant foods  to provide all essential amino acids without adding  animal proteins   ­ amino acids often low or limiting in plant proteins   ­ tryptophan, threonine, lysine, and methionine     Is Vegetarianism a healthy Lifestyle?    Pros:  ­ compared to nonvegetarians, vegetarians tend to  ­ weigh less  ­ have  less heart disease (eat less saturated fat and cholesterol)  ­ often exercise more, meditate for relaxation, and avoid tobacco and alcohol   Cons:  ­ if diets are poorly planned vegetarians may lack   ­ calories   ­ high ­ quality protein  ­ omega ­ 3 fatty acids  ­ vitamins b­12 and D  ­ Zinc, iron and calcium      Vegetarian Children and Teens   ● Children ­ may be difficult to consume adequate protein and energy, because  plant foods tend to be filing   ○ Growth rates of vegan children need close monitoring   ● Teens ­    ○ pro :can be a healthy diet because more fruits and vegetables are  consumed   ○ con:​ may be at risk or anorexia     Protein Adequacy  ­ excessive meat protein intake :  ­ may increase risk of heart disease and cancers of the colon/ rectum and possibly  prostate   ­ High­protein diets are generally not recommended for healthy individuals  ­ Excess protein intake can lead to higher than normal urinary losses of calcium  and dehydration     Protein Deficiency   ­ uncommon in the US  ­ may occur in:  ­ elderly or low income people  ­ persons with alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, or intestinal tract disorders     Kwashiorkor and Marasmus   Kwashiorkor ­  ­ Adequate energy intake but intake of high­quality protein is low  ­ edema    Marasmus ­   ­ starvation ­ extreme weight loss     Allergy  ­ inflammatory response resulting when body’s immune system reacts inappropriately to a  substance that is typically harmless  ­ Allergen ­ the offending substance        


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