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Week 1 Notes

by: Chris Fong

Week 1 Notes Bio 1

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Chris Fong

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About this Document

Covering Chapters 1 and 2
Contemporary Biology
Dr. Laura Beaster Jones
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chris Fong on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1 at a university taught by Dr. Laura Beaster Jones in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.


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Date Created: 01/13/16
Intro to Biology and Scientific Inquiry    Chapter 1:    Properties of Living Organisms:  ● Reproduce on their own without a host (Two types of reproduction)  1. Sexual: Organisms require two cells to reproduce  2. Asexual: Only one cell is needed to reproduce  ● Maintain Homeostasis  1. For example, a homeostatic body temperature for humans is ​ 37°C  (98.6°F)  ● Metabolism within a cell,   ● Response to stimuli  1. Living organisms interact with the environment in order to survive  ● Produces energy through processes such as...  1. Photosynthesis   2. Respiration   ● They grow and develop  1. Growth: The production of more or larger cells, typically resulting in an  increased mass of the organism  2. Development: Changes in the state of the cell     What is scientific inquiry?  ●  ​ Learning to question and understand the laws of nature    Discovery based science: The collection and analysis of data without  basing experimentation off of a hypothesis    Hypothesis Based Inquiry: 5 Steps  1. Observing interactions and occurrences within nature  2. Hypothesis formed in effort to explain the phenomena  3. Conducting experiments  4. Collecting data  5. Comparing hypothesis with the results after analyzing the data      Chapter 2:    Types of Chemical bonds  1. Covalent  ● Non­Polar Covalent ­ Equal sharing of electrons  ● Polar Covalent ­ Unequal sharing of electrons  2. Ionic ­ Transfer of electrons  3. Hydrogen Bonds ­ Weak bonds between one polar molecule and an  electronegative atom in another polar molecule    Van der Waals Forces: Temporary attractive forces that are even weaker than  Hydrogen bonds. These occur randomly between free flowing atoms.    Factors of Water:    Cohesion ­ Water molecules are attracted to each other  Adhesion ­ Water molecules are attracted to surfaces    Why is ice less dense than water?    In its liquid form hydrogen bonds break down and re­form, which allows them to move  closer to each other. The closer molecules are, the denser the material. In ice, water  molecules maintain a set distance from each other, causing it to be less dense than  liquid water.    What makes Carbon useful in Biology?    ● Can form 4 covalent bonds  ● Results in many diverse arrangements and electron configurations  ● Can form large, complex molecules    Large Biological Molecules  ● Carbohydrates  ● Lipids  ● Proteins  ● Nucleic Acids      Carbohydrates: Stores energy, Acts as structure    Forms of Carbohydrates:  1. Monosaccharides (Monomers)   ● Fructose, Ribose, Glucose  2. Disaccharides (Two bonded monomers)  ● Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose  3. Polysaccharides (Any molecules containing more than two monomers)  ● Cellulose, Starch    The formation of disaccharides and polysaccharides stem from dehydration reactions.  These are also always connected by Oxygen.    Polymers (ex. Polysaccharides) are broken down through hydrolysis.    Isomers:​  Molecules with identical formulas, but different structures    Lipids: Sources of energy, used to maintain structure    Lipids are hydrophobic molecules composed mainly of hydrogen, carbon, and some  oxygen atoms.    Two types of Lipids:  1. Fats  ● Saturated ­ All carbons in chain are single bonds  ● Monounsaturated ­ Contains one double bond in the carbon chain;  this induces a kink in the linear shape of the fatty acid  ● Polyunsaturated ­ Has 2 or more double bonds in the carbon chain  2. Phospholipids ­ Similar to triglycerides, but one of the hydroxyl groups is  linked with a phosphate group instead of a fatty acid     Triglycerides: ​(Classified as a fat), are formed from glycerol and three fatty acids after  going through a dehydration reaction.    Proteins: Many functions including acting as transport, antibodies,  producing enzymes, etc.    Proteins are formed by an Amino group (NH​ 2), Carboxylic Acid (COOH), an R group,  and Hydrogen    Peptide Bond: ​ The covalent bond formed between a Carboxyl group and Amino group  Polypeptide: ​ When multiple Amino Acids are joined by peptide bonds    Four levels of protein structure:  1. Primary ­ The original amino acid sequence  2. Secondary ­ backbone of protein  3. Tertiary ­ includes all secondary structures and other interactions  regarding amino acids  4. Quaternary ­ Two or more polypeptides binding to each other      Nucleic Acids: Responsible for storage, expression, and transmission  of genetic information    DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid):​  Stores genetic code in the sequence of building  monomers  RNA (Ribonucleic Acid): ​ Decodes and forms polypeptides with specific sequences of  amino acids    Nucleotides: Adenine and Guanine (Purine bases) Cytosine and Thymine (Pyrimidine  bases)    Hydrocarbons:​  Molecules that are predominantly made up of carbon­hydrogen and  carbon­carbon bonds.These bonds are electrically neutral and nonpolar.           


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