Psyc 102, Chapter 4 & 5
Psyc 102, Chapter 4 & 5 PSYC 102
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by kaewinn on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 102 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Emily Robin Squyres in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Louisiana Tech University.
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Date Created: 01/13/16
Psychology 102 Chapter 4 – Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity 4-1 What are chromosomes, DNA, genes, and the human genome? How do behavior geneticists explain our individual differences? Behavior Geneticists – who study our differences and weigh the effects and the interplay of heredity and environment. Environment – every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us. Chromosome – a coiled chain of DNA o 23 from mom, 23 from dad, 46 total DNA – (deoxyribonucleic acid) complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up chromosomes. Genes – small segments of the giant DNA molecules. When expressed, directs the development of proteins that influence a person’s individual development. Genes > DNA > Chromosomes 20,000 – 25,000 genes which are either active (expressed) or inactive. Environmental events “turn on” genes. When turned on, genes provide the code for creating protein molecules, our body’s building blocks. Genome – complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes. Human Genome – is the shared genetic profile that distinguishes humans from other species, consisting at an individual level of all the genetic material in an organism’s chromosomes. 4-2 How do twin and adoption studies help us understand the effects and interactions of nature and nurture? Identical (monozygotic) Twins – develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two. Fraternal (dizygotic) Twins – develop from two separate fertilized eggs. Extraversion – outgoingness Neuroticism – emotional instability Separated identical twins: maintain same genes while testing effects of different home environments. Adoptive families: maintain home environment while studying effects of genetic differences. Adopted children seem to be more similar to their genetic relatives in personality traits than their environmental relatives. The environment shared by a family’s children has virtually no discernable impact on their personalities. Siblings share half of their genes. Have very different combos of genes and may evoke different kinds of parenting. Sibling relationships ricochet off each other, amplifying their differences. Parenting has influence on: attitudes, values, manners, politics, and faith. Religious involvement is genetically influenced. But a pair of adopted kids or identical twins will have more similar religious beliefs if raised together. 4-3 What have psychologists learned about temperament? Temperament – emotional reactivity and excitability o Difficult – irritable, intense, fidgety, and unpredictable o Easy – cheerful and relaxed, feeding and sleeping on predictable schedules o Slow to warm up – resisting or withdrawing from new people and situations Genetic effects appears in physiological differences such as heart rate and nervous system activity. 4-4 What is heritability, and how does it relate to individuals and groups? Heritability – the extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to their differing genes. o Similar environments = + heritability o Different environments = - heritability Heritable individual differences does not imply heritable group differences. 4-5 How is molecular genetics research changing our understanding of effects of nature and nurture? Molecular Genetics – studies the molecular structure and function of genes. Molecular Behavior Genetics – to find some of the many genes that together orchestrate complex traits such as o body weight, sexual orientation, and impulsivity Epigenetics – (“in addition to” or “above and beyond” genetics) studies the molecular mechanisms by which environments can trigger or block genetic expression. Genes are self-regulating. Genes react. Life experiences lay down o Epigenetic Marks – organic methyl molecules attached to part of a DNA strand. If a mark instructs the cell to ignore any gene present in that DNA segment, those genes will be “turned off”, preventing the DNA from producing the proteins normally coded by that gene. 4-6 What are some benefits and risks of prenatal genetic testing? Benefits: how fetus’ genes differ from normal, inspection for rare brain diseases, predict brains or beauty, offspring’s sex Risks: selective sex determination, selecting vulnerability to a psychological disorder deprives the future of van Goghs, Churchills, and Lincolns, - troubled people all 4-7 How do evolutionary psychologists use natural selection to explain behavior tendencies? Evolutionary Psychologists – focus mostly on what makes us so much alike as humans. The study of evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection. Natural Selection: o Organisms’ varied offspring compete for survival o Certain biological and behavioral variations increase organisms’ reproductive and survival chances in their particular environment. o Offspring that survive are more likely to pass their genes to ensuing generations. o Thus, over time, population characteristics may change. Variations arise from: o Mutations – random errors in gene replication o New gene combinations at conception 4-8 How might an evolutionary psychologist explain male-female differences in sexuality and mating preferences? Women have more a stake. Must conceive and protect a fetus growing inside her body for up to nine months. Women are limited in how many children they can have between puberty and menopause. Men prefer women with signs of future fertility (narrow waist and fuller figure; age of peak fertility). Women prefer men with loyal behavior and physical/social power and resources. 4-9 What are the key criticisms of evolutionary explanations of human sexuality, and how do evolutionary psychologists respond? Social Scripts – culture’s guide to how people should act in certain situations. Criticisms of evolutionary explanation of human sexuality: o 1) It starts with an effect and works backward to propose an explanation. o 2) Unethical and immoral men could use such explanations to rationalize their behavior toward women. o 3) This explanation may overlook the effects of cultural expectations and socialization. Evolutionary psychologists respond that understanding our predispositions can help us overcome them. They recognize the importance of social and cultural influences, but also cite the value of testable predictions based on evolutionary principles. We are the product of a cascade of interactions between our genetic predispositions and our surrounding environments. Forget nature versus nurture. Think nature via nurture. Nature and nurture interact to shape synapses. To make well-used brain pathways work better, unused connections are “pruned” away. 4-10 How do early experiences modify the brain? In 14/16 repetitions of this basic experiment, rats in the enriched environment developed significantly more cerebral cortex (relative to the rest of the brain’s tissue) than did those in the impoverished environment. o Results influenced improvements in environments for animals and for children in institutions. 4-11 In what ways do parents and peers shape children’s development? Selection Effect – kids seek out peers with similar attitudes and interests. Parents have more influence on: o Education and career path o Cooperation o Self-discipline o Responsibility o Charitableness o Religion & Political Beliefs o Interaction style with authority figures, manners Peers have more influence on: o Learning cooperation skills o Learning the path to popularity o Choice of music and other recreation o Choice of clothing and other cultural choices o Good and bad habits o Culture, styles, accents, slang, attitudes Parents exert some influence over peer group culture by choosing their children’s neighborhoods and schools. 4-12 How does culture affect our behavior? Culture – the behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. Preservation of Innovation – culture’s accumulated knowledge to thank for the last century’s 30 year extension of the average human life expectancy. Division of Labor – culture enables an efficient division of labor. Norms – rules accepted and expected behavior. 4-13 How do individualist and collectivist cultures differ in their values and goals? Individualist – a great deal of your identity would remain intact. Collectivist – experience a greater loss of identity. Group Identifications – provide a sense of belonging, a set of values, and an assurance of security in collectivist cultures. Parents raise and protect their children differently depending on the surrounding culture. o Individualistic Culture: self-reliant and independent o Collectivist Culture: compliant and obedient 4-14 How does the meaning of gender differ from the meaning of sex? Sex – your biological status, defined by your chromosomes and anatomy. o XX chromosomes: female o XY chromosomes: male Gender – their cultures expectations about what it means to be male or female. 4-15 What are some ways in which males and females tend to be alike and to differ? Similarities: o Need to survive, reproduce, and avoid predators. o Comparable creativity and intelligence. o Same emotions and longings. Differences: o Self esteem o Women enter puberty a year earlier, life span 5 years longer. Women express emotion more freely, detect fainter orders o Women have twice the risk of developing depression and anxiety, and 10x of developing an eating disorder. o Man is 4x more likely die by suicide or develop an alcohol use disorder. o “More likely” for men includes autism spectrum disorder, color- blindness, and ADHD. o Aggression, social power, social connectedness Aggression – any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone physically or emotionally. Rational Aggression – act of aggression intended to harm a person’s relationship or social standing. 4-16 How do sex hormones influence prenatal and adolescent sexual development, and what is a disorder of sexual development? Biology does NOT dictate gender, but it can influence it in 2 ways: o Genetically – males and females have differing sex chromosomes o Physiologically – males and females have differing concentrations of sex hormones, which trigger other anatomical differences. X chromosome – your mother’s contribution Y chromosome – contribution from your father, making you male. Testosterone – the principal male hormone that promotes development of male sex organs. Puberty – two year period of rapid sexual maturation Primary Sex Characteristics - the reproductive organs and external genitalia, develop dramatically. Secondary Sex Characteristics – girls develop breasts and larger hips. Boys develop facial hair and their voices deepen. Pubic and underarm hair emerges in both girls and boys. Spermarche – first ejaculation Menarche – first menstrual period Disorder of Sexual Development – an inherited condition that involves unusual development of sex chromosomes and anatomy. Sex Reassignment Surgery – to create an unambiguous identity for some children with this condition. 4-17 How do gender roles and gender identity differ? Role – set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave. Gender Role – a set of expected behaviors, attitudes, and traits for males or for females. Gender Identity – our personal sense of being male, female, or a combination of the two. Social Learning Theory – assumes that we acquire our gender identity in childhood, by observing and imitating others’ gender-linked behaviors and by being rewarded or punished for acting in certain ways. Gender Typing – taking on the traditional male or female role. Androgyny – a blend of male and female roles feels right to them Transgender – an umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex. Comparing one’s personal gender identity with cultural concepts of gender roles produces feelings of confusion and discord. 4-18 What is included in the biopsychosocial approach to development? The biopsychosocial approach considers all the factors that influence or individual development: biological factors (including evolution and our genes, hormones, and brain), psychological factors (including our experiences, beliefs, feelings, and expectations), and social-cultural factors (including parental and peer influences, cultural individualism or collectivism, and gender norms). Psychology 102 Chapter 5 – Developing Through the Life Span 5-1 What three issues have engaged developmental psychologists? Developmental Psychology – examines our physical, cognitive, and social development across the life span, with a focus on three major issues: o Nature and nurture: How does genetic inheritance (our nature) interact with our experiences (our nurture) to influence our development? (Ch. 4) o Continuity and stages: What parts of development are gradual and continuous, like riding an escalator? What parts change abruptly in separate stages, like climbing rungs on a ladder? o Stability and change: Which of our traits persist through life? How do we change as we age? Continuity – those who emphasize learning and experience Stages – those who emphasize biological maturation Stage Theory of Development – how do adults and infants differ? Gradual, cumulative growth or in distinct stages? Oak tree from seedling or butterfly from a caterpillar? o Supported by Piaget (cognitive development), Kohlberg (moral development), and Erikson (psychosocial development) o Challenged by findings that change is more gradual and less culturally universal than these theorists supposed. The idea of stability in personality across the life span is supported by some traits, such as temperament, which exhibits remarkable stability across many years. But we do change in other ways, such as in our social attitudes. 5-2 What is the course of prenatal development, and how do teratogens affect that development? A woman’s ovary releases a mature egg and one of millions of deposited sperm cells penetrates its wall. A series of chemical events begin that cause sperm and egg to fuse into a single cell. Zygotes – fertilized eggs (conception to 2 weeks), rapid cell division Embryo – (2 weeks through 8 weeks) o Attachment to uterus o Heartbeat beat & cell differentiation o Recognizable body parts o Major body systems o Many of its outer cells become the placenta – life-ink that transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to embryo Fetus – (9 weeks to 40 weeks), body systems mature Teratogens – agents such as viruses and drugs, can damage an embryo or fetus. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) – marked by lifelong physical and mental abnormalities Prenatal Brain Development: o Embryonic Stage: Week 3: primitive neural tube of stem cells Neural stem cells divide and multiply, producing neurons and glial cells The top of the neural tube gradually thickens into three bulges that develop into the three main brain regions o Fetal Stage: Month 4: Quickening; hearing begins Month 6: Brain cells growing in size and complexity Months 6-9: Rapid brain and body growth, lung development, nerve insulation (myelinization) 5-3 What are some newborn abilities, and how do researchers explore infants’ mental abilities? Involuntary responses for survival: o Root for a nipple o Sucking: tonguing, swallowing, & breathing The neural-motor systems are intact and working o These decrease as they mature and acquire voluntary skills. Habituation – a decrease in responding with repeated stimulation. Newborn Competencies: Sensory Abilities o Visual Abilities: What do newborns like to look at? Angles, Circles and bulls eyes, Contrasts: black and white, Eyes & Faces, Primary colors Maturation – biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience, decrees many of our commonalities. 5-4 During infancy and childhood, how do the brain and motor sills develop? Day you were born, you had the most brain cells you would ever have. o Nervous system was immature o After birth. The neural networks enabled you to walk, talk, and remember Age 3-6, most rapid growth in your frontal lobes, enabled rational planning The brain’s association areas (thinking, memory, and language) will develop last. Motor development: rolling over, grasping rattle, sitting without support, crawling, standing while holding on, walking well building tower of cubes, walking up steps. Babies only 3 months old can learn that kicking moves a mobiles, and they can retain that learning for a month. Infants showed no learning, when a different mobile was replaced. Motor-skill development: The sequence, but not the timing, is universal. 5-5 From the perspectives of Piaget, Vygotsky, and today’s researchers how does a child’s mind develop? Cognitive – all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. Children reason differently than adults, in “wildly illogical ways about problems whose solutions are self-evident to adults.” Schemas – a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. Assimilate - interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing schemas Accommodation – our ability to adapt our current understandings to incorporate new information. Jean Piaget – the father modern developmental psychology In Piaget’s view, cognitive development consisted of four major stages – sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Sensorimotor Stage – from birth to age 2 o Experiences the world through movement and senses o Develops schemas o Acts intentionally o Object Permanence – awareness that objects continue to exist even when not perceived. o Stranger anxiety Preoperational Stage – age 6-7 o Able to represent things with words & images Too young to preform mental operations imagining (such as imagining an action and mentally reversing it). o DOES NOT GRASP Conservation – the principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape. o Acquires motor skills o Egocentric – difficulty taking another’s point of view o Theory of Mind – ideas about own and others’ mental states- feelings, perceptions, & thoughts, & behaviors these might predict. o Autism spectrum disorder – have difficulty understanding that one kid’s state f mind differed from their own. o Pretend Play Concrete Operational Stage – age 7-12 o Think logically about concrete events o Grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations o Learn how actions “operations” can affect/transom “concrete” objects o Begins to grasp conservation. Formal Operational – age 12 o Think logically about abstract concepts o Solve nonphysical problems o Potential for mature moral reasoning Criticisms of Piaget’s Framework: o Can babies think before they talk? Was Piaget wrong, or is development just more continuous than he thought? Lev Vygotsky – Russian psychologist o Cognitive development: other views Learn from interacting with others Parents and caretakers provide temporary scaffolds enabling children step to higher levels of learning Continuous process 5-6 What is autism spectrum disorder? Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) – a disorder marked by social deficiencies and repetitive behaviors, have been increasing. Theory of mind focuses on our ability to understand our own and others’ mental states. Those with autism spectrum disorder struggle with this ability 5-7 How do parent-infant attachment bonds form? Stranger Anxiety – fear of strangers that infants commonly display Attachment – bond is a powerful survival impulse that keeps infants close to their caregivers The Harlows raised monkeys with 2 artificial mothers o A bare wire cylinder with a wooden head and an attached feeding bottle (nutrition) o Cylinder with a bottle but covered with foam rubber and wrapped in terry cloth. o Preference for cloth mother, even while feeding from nourishing mother. Many birds and other animals have a more rigid attachment process: o Critical Period – optimal period when certain events must take place to facilitate proper development. o Imprinting – the process by which certain animals form strong attachments during early life. 5-8 How have psychologists studied attachment differences, and what have they learned? Strange situation experiment – behavioral test by Mary Ainsworth to determine a child’s attachment style. Secure Attachment – bonds easily with caregivers, explores environment independently, when mother leaves, they become distressed, when she returns, they seek contact with her. Insecure Attachment – marked by anxiety or avoidance of trusting relationships. Clings to or ignore caregivers, reluctant to explore surroundings. Is attachment style result of parenting or temperament? Basic Trust – a sense that the world is predictable and reliable. o Erik Erikson’s idea that basic trust is formed in infancy by our experiences with responsive caregivers. 5-9 How does childhood neglect or abuse affect children’s attachment? Children are very resilient, but those who are severely neglected by their parents, or otherwise prevented from forming attachments at an early age, may be at risk for attachment problems. 5-10 How do children’s self-concepts develop? Self-Concept – an understanding and assessment of who they are. 15-18 months, children recognize themselves in the mirror. School age, they can describe their own traits. 8-10 years old, their self-image is stable. 5-11 What are three parenting styles, and how do children’s traits relate to them? 1) Authoritarian – parents are coercive. Impose rules and expect obedience. 2) Permissive – parents are unrestraining. Make few demands and use little punishment. They may be indifferent, unresponsive, or unwilling to set limits. 3) Authoritative – parents are confrontive. Both demanding and responsive. Exert control by setting rules, but especially with older children, they encourage open discussion and allow exceptions. Children with high self- esteem, self-reliant, and socially competent. 5-12 How is adolescence defined, and how do physical changes affect developing teens? Adolescence – years spent morphing from child to adult – starts with the physical beginnings of sexual maturity and ends with the social achievement of independent adult status. Puberty – time we mature sexually. Follows a surge of hormones, which may intensify moods and which trigger the bodily changes. Early versus late maturing. o Boys seem to benefit from “early” maturation. Girls from “late” maturation. The teenage brain. o The brain’s frontal lobes mature and myelin growth increases during adolescence and the early 20s, enabling improved judgement, impulse control, and long-term planning. 5-13 How did Piaget, Kohlberg, and later researchers describe adolescent cognitive and moral development? Moral Reasoning – the thinking that occurs as we consider from right and wrong. Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Thinking: Level Focus Example Preconventional Morality Self-interest, obey rules “If you save your dying (before 9) to avoid punishment or wife, you’ll be hero.” gain concrete rewards. Conventional Morality Uphold laws and rules to “If you steal the drug for (early adolescence) gain social approval or her, everyone will think maintain social order. you’re a criminal.” Postconventional Morality Actions reflect belief in “People have a right to (adolescence and basic rights and self- live.” beyond) defined ethical principles. Preconventional Level: guided by external consequences; no internalization of values/rules. o Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Being good in order to avoid being punished. o Stage 2: Mutual Benefit (“That’s not fair!”) Realize that people have different viewpoints. Conventional Level: guided by conformity to internalized social roles, rules, and expectations. o Stage 3: Interpersonal Expectations (Being a “good girl/boy”) Act in a good way in order to be viewed as being good. o Stage 4: Law and Order (“That’s the rule!”) Aware of wider rules of society so behave in a certain way to uphold law and avoid guild. Postconventional Level: internalized legal & moral principles that protect rights of all members of society. o Stage 5: Legal Principles (fairness, justice, equality) Issues are not always clear cut o Stage 6: Universal Moral Principles Set own moral guidelines that we’ll fight for 5-14 What are the social tasks and challenges of adolescence? Each stage of life has its own psychosocial task, a crisis that needs resolution. Young children wrestle with issues of trust, then autonomy (independence), then initiative. “Who am I as an individual?” – Search for Identity Psychosocial Development Theory – importance of social & cultural influences on personality throughout lie stages. Stage Issue Description of Task Infancy (birth-1) Trust vs mistrust If needs are met, they develop a sense trust Toddlerhood (1-3) Autonomy vs shame & Exercise their will & do doubt things on their own OR doubt own abilities Preschool (3-6) Initiative vs guilt Initiative tasks & carry out plans OR feel guilty about being independent Elementary (6-puberty) Competence vs inferiority Pleasure of applying self OR feel inferior Adolescence (teen-20s) Identity vs role confusion Refining sense of self OR become confused Young Adulthood (20s- Intimacy vs isolation From close relationships 40s) OR socially isolated Middle Adulthood (40s- Generativity vs Contribute to the world 60s) stagnation (family/work) OR lack of purpose Late Adulthood (60s-up) Integrity vs despair Reflecting on life, feel satisfied OR like a failure Identity – a self-definition that unifies the various selves into a consistent and comfortable sense of who one is. Social Identity – the “we” aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to “Who am I?” that comes from our group memberships. Intimacy – the ability to form emotionally close relationships. 5-15 How do parents and peers influence adolescents? During adolescence, a parental influence diminishes and peer influence increases, in part because of the selection effect – the tendency to choose similar other. But adolescents also do adopt their peers’ ways of dressing, acting, and communicating. Parents have more influence in religion, politics, and college and career choices. 5-16 What is emerging adulthood? Emerging Adulthood – a period from about age 18 to the mid-twenties, when many in Western cultures are no longer adolescents but have not yet achieved full independence as adults. 5-17 What physical changes occur during middle and late adulthood? Menopause – the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refer to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability reproduce declines. Senescence – a gradual physical decline related to aging o Occurs in everyone and in every body part o The rate of decline is highly variable within and between persons Crystallized intelligence – our accumulated store of knowledge and verbal skills – tends to increase with age Fluid intelligence – our ability to reason speedily and abstractly – tends to decrease during late adulthood. 5-18 How does memory change with age? Cross-Sectional Studies – comparing people of different ages Longitudinal Studies – restudying people over time Recall begins to decline, but recognition memory remains strong. Older adults rely more on time management and memory cues to remember time-based and habitual tasks. “Terminal decline” describes the cognitive decline in the final few years of life. 5-19 How do neurocognitive disorders and Alzheimer’s disease affect cognitive ability? Neurocognitive Disorder (NCDs) – (formerly dementia) a series of small strokes, a brain tumor, or alcohol use disorder can progressively damage the brain, causing a mental erosion. Alzheimer ’s Disease – a neurocognitive disorder marked by neural plaques, often with an onset after age 80, and entailing a progressive decline in memory and other cognitive abilities. 5-20 What themes and influences mark our social journey from early adulthood to death? Generativity – being productive and supporting future generations. Freud defined the healthy adult as one who is able to love and to work. Midlife Transition – a crisis, a time of great struggle, regret, or even feeling struck down by life. Social Clock – the definition of “the right time” to leave home, get a job, marry, have children, and retire – varies from era to era and culture to culture. 5-21 How does our well-being change across the life span? Self-confidence tends to strengthen across the life span. Surveys show that life satisfaction is unrelated to age. Positive emotions increase after midlife and negative ones decrease. Challenges: o Decline of muscular strength, reaction times, stamina, sensory keenness, cardiac output, and immune system functioning. o Risk of cognitive decline increases. Rewards: o Positive feelings tend to grow, negative emotions are less intense, and anger, stress, worry, and social-relationship problems decrease. 5-22 A loved one’s death triggers what range of reactions? People do not grieve in predictable stages. Strong expressions of emotion do not purge grief and bereavement therapy is not significantly more effective than grieving without such aid. Erikson viewed the late adulthood psychosocial task as developing a sense of integrity vs. despair.
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