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Biology Day 2, Basic Genetics

by: Halie Bruck

Biology Day 2, Basic Genetics BIOL2150

Halie Bruck
GPA 2.0

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About this Document

This is the topic talked about in class that day. It is rewritten from the notes taken in class! Hope it helps!
Fund of Life Sci Div of Life
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Halie Bruck on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL2150 at University of Toledo taught by Leady,B in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Fund of Life Sci Div of Life in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at University of Toledo.

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Date Created: 01/14/16
Dr. Leady Basic Genetics January 13, 2016 *REWRITTEN FROM NOTES GIVEN BY INSTRUCTOR* Four Classes of molecules that are the signature of life 1. Nucleic acids- It is the genetic message. Transmitted from one generation to another 2. Proteins- DNA codes for proteins and RNA. The protein is either the final product or makes other enzymes (protein) 3. Lipids 4. Carbohydrates Genes  DNA sequence that encode information to make a specific RNA or protein (Gene Product)  “Allele”- alternate form of genes  The particular alleles within a particular individual define that individual’s genotype (genotype= what your DNA says)  Diploid (2n) organisms have 2 copies of each gene Homozygous Heterozygous Two alleles Two alleles are the same: are different: A A A S Hb /HB HB /HB HB /HB S Mutation- is a source of variation errors in DNA during reputation or after reputation  Is always a change in an organism’s DNA forming new alleles  Mutation is always random and in directed  If a mutation is good/beneficial, it has to be passed on in order to change evolution  A mutation or allele can be “lost/death in evolution” if the individual does not reproduce  Larger advantage the mutation has, the faster the change occurs Genotype and Phenotype **Genotype determines how well adapted an individual is to their environment** How good you compete in the population; how many alleles carry on in the generations **Phenotype is determined by genotype** Genotype Phenotype Hb /HB A “Normal” - making 100% normal hemoglobin HB /HB S Sickle Cell Disease – making 100% sickle cell hemoglobin HB /HB S Heterozygote – making half sickle cell and normal hemoglobin Genotype Phenotype A A Hb /HB “Normal” S S HB /HB Sickle Cell Disease A S HB /HB “Malaria Resistant” (Malaria is transmitted by mitosis) Parasite that lives inside the red blood cells and make them explode Makes enough normal hemoglobin Will live longer, be healthier, and children in areas and enough abnormal infested with the malaria parasite hemoglobin which makes them unattractive to the malaria parasite Evolution – change in alleles/genes frequency (change over time)  NOT RANDOM  YOU CANNOT CHANGE YOURSELF IN EVOLUTION!  Not about making it better, it is about if it has changed or not Natural Selection- is the process of competition and unequal reproduction of offspring  Can favor some mutations and no other mutations  Never happens to an individual; happens to a generation  Are you a better or worse competitor in that time and place? Sexual Reproduction  Results in Variation Passed through sex reproduction **In every sexual reproduction, every offspring is a different combination of alleles**


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