Educational Psych Week 2 Notes
Educational Psych Week 2 Notes Psych 305
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by AnthonyA on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 305 at University of Massachusetts taught by Catherine Dimmitt, William Matthews in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 01/14/16
Week 2 Notes 1.26.16 Contexts of Development How to be a good student? (Said in class) • Humble • Open to learning new things • Work well with others • Participate • Show up prepared for class • Complete assignments thoughtfully and thoroughly • Attentive and engaged • Engage with the class and with others, help peers • Hand in assignments on time • Enthusiasm for the subject (finding the part of the content that interests you) Diversity Contexts (Said in class) • Race – “old construct” – European/Caucasian, African, Asian • Every race is multiple ethnicities and cultures – commonalities? • Many of you are multi-ethnic, multi-racial, and mixed religion • Complexities of colonization of Native peoples by Europeans • When do we become just “American” vs. “African/Asian/European-American?” How many generations in this country? Unless we are 100% Native American, we are all immigrants…. (so “American” is an ethnicity only for natives and a culture for most) • Latino – not a race, multiple races and ethnicities, same language; “Latino culture” • Problem – 2 people of “same race” as likely to be as different genetically as those of “different race,” due to variations in ethnicity and geography (see Wikipedia on “race: human categorization” for full discussion) • Many of you did not identify as any religion at all, or agnostic, or “Christmas” • Cultures – many! “Red Sox nation”, many said “New Englander” or “MA resident” Diveristy • Thinking about and understanding the diversity of learners -> core component of ed. Psych, ed practices, and ed research (many biases in past samples) • Address diversity issues as they relate to every topic -> need shared understanding and common languages for diversity Culture • Behaviors and belief systems of a social group o Psych 305 has a culture o UMass has a culture o U.S. has a culture o Culture of origin -> may be recent or several generations back, relating to different extents and different families Race • Ancestral, social, ethnic, and cultural connections • Originally an anthropological system for classifying skeletal remains based on biological features o No longer used in anthropology -> not accurate way to differentiate biologically • In U.S. “race” has larger social-political meaning than in other cultures o Historical and ongoing § When do we use “race” when we mean culture or ethnicity? § When is “race” the accurate term to use? Ethnic Group • Common historical roots, values, beliefs, and behaviors related to culture (Irish, Japanese) • Members share a sense of interdependence and connectedness Religion • Religious beliefs, customs, practices • Historical and present day meaning (raised Irish catholic, but not practicing) • Judaism is unique -> considered an ethnicity/culture and a religion Ø Positive racial, ethnic, cultural, and religious identity is associated with more academic success Ø For students, positive racial, ethnic, cultural, and religious identity are important for developing positive identity and clear sense of self Class and Socio-economic Status (SES) • SES o $ you have o access to resources, $, and power o highly correlated with education • Class o Historicsally related to work done (blue, pink, white collar) – education required? o Has to do with values § “Upper-class culture” or “working-class culture” o how people spend money SES and Environment • Higher SES students tend to have higher test scores and grades o Stay in school longer -> Why? § Lower SES Families • Poorer nutrition and more exposure to pollution • Less exposure to school-related materials • Less parental involvement • Fewer well-qualified teachers and higher turnover rates Diversity in Classroom • Class Status and SES • Race, ethnicity, culture and religion • Sex o biological status of male or female • Gender o behaviors learned in environment about being male or female • Disability o being able to perform some behavior, task, or skill, or needing more time and effort to do so Embracing Diversity • Prejudice feelings o Rigid and irrational generalizations about a group or category of people (example = “girls are not good at math”) • Confirmation bias o The tendency for people to seek evidence that confirms what they already believe to be true • Belief perseverance o The tendency to hold onto our beliefs even in the face of contradictory evidence • Discrimination o Treating students differently based on prejudice feelings or biased beliefs Child Development History • Childhood itself is a cultural invention, or social construction (last few hundred years) • Prior to modern (<1600) o Children as mini adults o Age of 7 = end of parenting and protecting • 1700s o most children work long days on farms, education secondary • 1800 o full time (12-14 hr/day) in factories, education as a privilege • Industrial era o Late 19 century -> focus on child education and protection = changes in workforce and increased need for workers • Extension of “childhood” o As a parental support of youth -> in today’s cultures how related to economics and school norms and expectations? Development • Definition -> it is not just any change • Changes o Increasingly complex o Logical sequence o Supports a person’s capacity to respond to environment demands (survival) Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological • All physical, cognitive, social, emotional, moral development occurs in this complex interaction of multiple contexts • All development is linked • Model o Microsystems § Immediate surroundings o Mesosystems § 2 or more microsystems o Exosystems § 2 or more environments, one of which does not directly include the individual o Macrosystems § Broader cultural patterns, beliefs, customs, knowledge, and morals o Chronosystems § Chronological nature of development within the individual, as well as the history of the surrounding environment Parenting Practices (Baumrind) • Control o The manner and strictness with which parents provide limits and discipline to their children § Behavioral aspects of parenting • Responsiveness o Includes affection, acceptance, and caring involved in parenting § Emotional aspects of parenting Parenting Practices and School • High control, High response -> Authoritative o Limits set o rules enforced o flexibility when needed o high emotional relationship • High control, Low response -> Authoritarian o Limits set o rules enforces o no emotional connection o inflexible parents • Low control, High response -> Permissive o No rules set or no rules enforced o Close connection between parent and child • Low control, Low response o No control or responsiveness o Parents unaware of child’s life Ø Authoritative Parenting is related to academic benefits o Higher achievement o Better attitudes toward school o More time on homework o More engaged with teachers and learning o Lower levels of maladaptive behavior in class Cultural Factors • Parenting styles • Values regarding education • Beliefs about the benefits of education • Parental involvement in education Brofenbrenner Biological Model: Interdepent Systems • Chart from Slides in Class • Aggression in a 7 year old 1) Child factors (genetics, health, brain, biology, gender) 2) Micro/Mesosystem factors (family, peers, school, religious institutions) 3) Exosystem factors (community, parent employment, media, etc. ) 4) Macrosystem factors (cultural, economic, and social conditions) 5) Chronosystem factors (age) 1.28.16 Emotional Development • Emotion o Complex constellations of physiology, behavior, and feeling that can have direct impact on student performance • Temperament o Genetically-‐based individual differences in emotion, activity, and self-‐ control that determine our patterns of responding to stimuli and events Parental impact on Emotional Development 1) Beliefs about the acceptability of emotions 2) Beliefs about active socialization/coaching with respect to children’s emotional expression • Parents tend to encourage emotional expression in girls, except anger • Parents are likely to attempt to regulate boys’ emotional expressiveness, particularly sadness and pain • Parents socialize children in display rules -‐> cultural rules that govern the degree of emotional expression appropriate for different situations Emotional Intelligence (Daniel Goleman) -‐> ability to perceive, express, understand, and manage emotions • 5 main area of Emotional Intelligence o Emotional understanding, emotional self-‐awareness o Responding to others’ emotions, empathy o Emotional regulation o Self-‐motivation o Emotions in relationships, social skills Social Emotional Learning (SEL) 1) Caring relationships are the foundation of lasting learning. 2) Emotions affect how and what we learn. 3) Goal-‐setting and problem-‐solving provide focus, direction, and energy for learning Emotional Intelligence related to academic success? • High stress • Anxiety o Too much anxiety is bad o Too little anxiety is not enough to perform • Social skills and responding to others’ emotions • Enjoyment = more likely to engage Research on SEL and School • Better academic performance o About 11 points higher than students with no SEL • Improved attitudes and behavior o Motivation to learn o Deeper commitment o Increased time devotion o Better classroom behavior • Fewer negative behaviors o Less disruptiveness o Less noncompliance o Less aggression o Less delinquent acts o Less disciplinary referrals • Reduced Emotional Distress o Fewer reports of students depression o Less anxiety o Less stress o Less social withdrawal Attachment Theorists • John Bowlby: Studied maternal deprivation and separation and its effects on children (post-‐WWII) • Mary Ainsworth studied infant/child and caregiver bonds and developed several laboratory methods for studying attachment -‐ “Strange Situation” • Hazan and Shaver first studied adult attachment in the general population Attachment Theory (Bowlby) • infant behaviors such as crying, clinging, smiling, etc. evolved to support survival by ensuring that a caregiver will stay nearby. • Attachment is seen as an innate interactive behavioral system (between infant and caregiver). • Gets more strongly activated when an infant is under stress (frightened, ill). • As a child matures, s/he develops cognitive skills (memory, expectation) that help maintain attachment in the absence of a caregiver. These are called mental models or working models of relationships Attachment Theory: Caregiver • The caregiver also is motivated to provide comfort and assistance, to be responsive to the child’s needs, and to react with sensitivity. • Caregiver behavior coordinates to a greater or lesser extent with what the child needs, so attachment is a constant feedback loop between parent and child. • Some caregivers are more sensitive than others, and some babies are easier than others –> the attachment interaction varies widely. • Caregiver attachment impacts caregiving Attachment Theory • The fundamental assumption in attachment research on human infants is that sensitive responding by the parent to the infant's needs results in an infant who demonstrates secure attachment, while lack of such sensitive responding results in insecure attachment (Lamb, Thompson, Gardner, Charnov, & Estes, 1984). Attachment Theory: Felt Security • “good enough” parenting = developed sense of felt security o explore world with trust, cared for, and kept safe by caregivers • critical period 0-‐3 years old o significant events later in life can shape the person Insecure Attachment • Initially 2 types of infant insecure attachment were identified: o Avoidant § associated with a caregiver who is unresponsive and lacks warmth o Anxious-‐Ambivalent § associated with a caregiver who responds inconsistently Ainsworth -‐> “Strange Situation” • 12-‐month olds and parents separated form and reunited o Secure attachment = ~60% § Become upset when the parent leaves the room § When he or she returns, they actively seek the parent and are easily comforted by him or her o Anxious = ~20% § Become extremely distressed at separation § When reunited with parents, have a difficult time being soothed § Show conflicting behaviors – want to be comforted but also may push away when picked up o Avoidant = ~20% § Don't appear too distressed by the separation § Upon reunion, actively avoid seeking contact with their parent, sometimes turning their attention to play objects on the laboratory floor Attachment Theory: Infants • One of the core ideas in attachment theory is that if we have significant early experiences of loss of caregivers (either through death, parental absence, parental illness, or other loss) then our relational abilities get interrupted in some consistent ways. • These ideas have had some impact on practices in orphanages in this country, as well as adoption practices with infants and young children Attachment Disorders § Reactive Disorder o Result of social neglect or other situations that limit a young child’s opportunity to form relational attachments, o Leads to a lack of or incompletely formed attachments to caregivers o Correlated with low positive affect/emotion § Resemble Anxiety and Depression
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