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Educational Psych Week 2 Notes

by: AnthonyA

Educational Psych Week 2 Notes Psych 305

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January 26th and 28th
Educational Psychology
Catherine Dimmitt, William Matthews
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by AnthonyA on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 305 at University of Massachusetts taught by Catherine Dimmitt, William Matthews in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 01/14/16
Week 2 Notes 1.26.16 Contexts of Development How to be a good student? (Said in class) • Humble • Open to learning new things • Work well with others • Participate • Show up prepared for class • Complete assignments thoughtfully and thoroughly • Attentive and engaged • Engage with the class and with others, help peers • Hand in assignments on time • Enthusiasm for the subject (finding the part of the content that interests you) Diversity Contexts (Said in class) • Race – “old construct” – European/Caucasian, African, Asian • Every race is multiple ethnicities and cultures – commonalities? • Many of you are multi-ethnic, multi-racial, and mixed religion • Complexities of colonization of Native peoples by Europeans • When do we become just “American” vs. “African/Asian/European-American?” How many generations in this country? Unless we are 100% Native American, we are all immigrants…. (so “American” is an ethnicity only for natives and a culture for most) • Latino – not a race, multiple races and ethnicities, same language; “Latino culture” • Problem – 2 people of “same race” as likely to be as different genetically as those of “different race,” due to variations in ethnicity and geography (see Wikipedia on “race: human categorization” for full discussion) • Many of you did not identify as any religion at all, or agnostic, or “Christmas” • Cultures – many! “Red Sox nation”, many said “New Englander” or “MA resident” Diveristy • Thinking about and understanding the diversity of learners -> core component of ed. Psych, ed practices, and ed research (many biases in past samples) • Address diversity issues as they relate to every topic -> need shared understanding and common languages for diversity Culture • Behaviors and belief systems of a social group o Psych 305 has a culture o UMass has a culture o U.S. has a culture o Culture of origin -> may be recent or several generations back, relating to different extents and different families Race • Ancestral, social, ethnic, and cultural connections • Originally an anthropological system for classifying skeletal remains based on biological features o No longer used in anthropology -> not accurate way to differentiate biologically • In U.S. “race” has larger social-political meaning than in other cultures o Historical and ongoing § When do we use “race” when we mean culture or ethnicity? § When is “race” the accurate term to use? Ethnic Group • Common historical roots, values, beliefs, and behaviors related to culture (Irish, Japanese) • Members share a sense of interdependence and connectedness Religion • Religious beliefs, customs, practices • Historical and present day meaning (raised Irish catholic, but not practicing) • Judaism is unique -> considered an ethnicity/culture and a religion Ø Positive racial, ethnic, cultural, and religious identity is associated with more academic success Ø For students, positive racial, ethnic, cultural, and religious identity are important for developing positive identity and clear sense of self Class and Socio-economic Status (SES) • SES o $ you have o access to resources, $, and power o highly correlated with education • Class o Historicsally related to work done (blue, pink, white collar) – education required? o Has to do with values § “Upper-class culture” or “working-class culture” o how people spend money SES and Environment • Higher SES students tend to have higher test scores and grades o Stay in school longer -> Why? § Lower SES Families • Poorer nutrition and more exposure to pollution • Less exposure to school-related materials • Less parental involvement • Fewer well-qualified teachers and higher turnover rates Diversity in Classroom • Class Status and SES • Race, ethnicity, culture and religion • Sex o biological status of male or female • Gender o behaviors learned in environment about being male or female • Disability o being able to perform some behavior, task, or skill, or needing more time and effort to do so Embracing Diversity • Prejudice feelings o Rigid and irrational generalizations about a group or category of people (example = “girls are not good at math”) • Confirmation bias o The tendency for people to seek evidence that confirms what they already believe to be true • Belief perseverance o The tendency to hold onto our beliefs even in the face of contradictory evidence • Discrimination o Treating students differently based on prejudice feelings or biased beliefs Child Development History • Childhood itself is a cultural invention, or social construction (last few hundred years) • Prior to modern (<1600) o Children as mini adults o Age of 7 = end of parenting and protecting • 1700s o most children work long days on farms, education secondary • 1800 o full time (12-14 hr/day) in factories, education as a privilege • Industrial era o Late 19 century -> focus on child education and protection = changes in workforce and increased need for workers • Extension of “childhood” o As a parental support of youth -> in today’s cultures how related to economics and school norms and expectations? Development • Definition -> it is not just any change • Changes o Increasingly complex o Logical sequence o Supports a person’s capacity to respond to environment demands (survival) Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological • All physical, cognitive, social, emotional, moral development occurs in this complex interaction of multiple contexts • All development is linked • Model o Microsystems § Immediate surroundings o Mesosystems § 2 or more microsystems o Exosystems § 2 or more environments, one of which does not directly include the individual o Macrosystems § Broader cultural patterns, beliefs, customs, knowledge, and morals o Chronosystems § Chronological nature of development within the individual, as well as the history of the surrounding environment Parenting Practices (Baumrind) • Control o The manner and strictness with which parents provide limits and discipline to their children § Behavioral aspects of parenting • Responsiveness o Includes affection, acceptance, and caring involved in parenting § Emotional aspects of parenting Parenting Practices and School • High control, High response -> Authoritative o Limits set o rules enforced o flexibility when needed o high emotional relationship • High control, Low response -> Authoritarian o Limits set o rules enforces o no emotional connection o inflexible parents • Low control, High response -> Permissive o No rules set or no rules enforced o Close connection between parent and child • Low control, Low response o No control or responsiveness o Parents unaware of child’s life Ø Authoritative Parenting is related to academic benefits o Higher achievement o Better attitudes toward school o More time on homework o More engaged with teachers and learning o Lower levels of maladaptive behavior in class Cultural Factors • Parenting styles • Values regarding education • Beliefs about the benefits of education • Parental involvement in education Brofenbrenner Biological Model: Interdepent Systems • Chart from Slides in Class • Aggression in a 7 year old 1) Child factors (genetics, health, brain, biology, gender) 2) Micro/Mesosystem factors (family, peers, school, religious institutions) 3) Exosystem factors (community, parent employment, media, etc. ) 4) Macrosystem factors (cultural, economic, and social conditions) 5) Chronosystem factors (age)   1.28.16     Emotional  Development   • Emotion   o Complex  constellations  of  physiology,  behavior,  and  feeling  that  can   have  direct  impact  on  student  performance   • Temperament   o Genetically-­‐based  individual  differences  in  emotion,  activity,  and  self-­‐ control  that  determine  our  patterns  of  responding  to  stimuli  and   events     Parental  impact  on  Emotional  Development   1) Beliefs  about  the  acceptability  of  emotions   2) Beliefs  about  active  socialization/coaching  with  respect  to  children’s   emotional  expression   • Parents  tend  to  encourage  emotional  expression  in  girls,  except  anger   • Parents  are  likely  to  attempt  to  regulate  boys’  emotional  expressiveness,   particularly  sadness  and  pain   • Parents  socialize  children  in  display  rules  -­‐>  cultural  rules  that  govern  the   degree  of  emotional  expression  appropriate  for  different  situations     Emotional  Intelligence  (Daniel  Goleman)  -­‐>  ability  to  perceive,  express,  understand,   and  manage  emotions   • 5  main  area  of  Emotional  Intelligence   o Emotional  understanding,  emotional  self-­‐awareness   o Responding  to  others’  emotions,  empathy   o Emotional  regulation   o Self-­‐motivation   o Emotions  in  relationships,  social  skills     Social  Emotional  Learning  (SEL)   1) Caring  relationships  are  the  foundation  of  lasting  learning.   2) Emotions  affect  how  and  what  we  learn.   3) Goal-­‐setting  and  problem-­‐solving  provide  focus,  direction,  and  energy  for   learning     Emotional  Intelligence  related  to  academic  success?   • High  stress   • Anxiety   o Too  much  anxiety  is  bad   o Too  little  anxiety  is  not  enough  to  perform   • Social  skills  and  responding  to  others’  emotions   • Enjoyment  =  more  likely  to  engage         Research  on  SEL  and  School   • Better  academic  performance   o About  11  points  higher  than  students  with  no  SEL   • Improved  attitudes  and  behavior   o Motivation  to  learn   o Deeper  commitment   o Increased  time  devotion   o Better  classroom  behavior   • Fewer  negative  behaviors   o Less  disruptiveness   o Less  noncompliance   o Less  aggression   o Less  delinquent  acts   o Less  disciplinary  referrals     • Reduced  Emotional  Distress   o Fewer  reports  of  students  depression   o Less  anxiety   o Less  stress   o Less  social  withdrawal     Attachment  Theorists   • John  Bowlby:  Studied  maternal  deprivation  and  separation  and  its  effects  on   children  (post-­‐WWII)   • Mary  Ainsworth  studied  infant/child  and  caregiver  bonds  and  developed   several  laboratory  methods  for  studying  attachment  -­‐  “Strange  Situation”   • Hazan  and  Shaver  first  studied  adult  attachment  in  the  general  population           Attachment  Theory  (Bowlby)   • infant  behaviors  such  as  crying,  clinging,  smiling,  etc.  evolved  to  support   survival  by  ensuring  that  a  caregiver  will  stay  nearby.     • Attachment  is  seen  as  an  innate  interactive  behavioral  system  (between   infant  and  caregiver).   • Gets  more  strongly  activated  when  an  infant  is  under  stress  (frightened,  ill).   • As  a  child  matures,  s/he  develops  cognitive  skills  (memory,  expectation)  that   help  maintain  attachment  in  the  absence  of  a  caregiver.  These  are  called   mental  models  or  working  models  of  relationships     Attachment  Theory:  Caregiver   • The  caregiver  also  is  motivated  to  provide  comfort  and  assistance,  to  be   responsive  to  the  child’s  needs,  and  to  react  with  sensitivity.     • Caregiver  behavior  coordinates  to  a  greater  or  lesser  extent  with  what  the   child  needs,  so  attachment  is  a  constant  feedback  loop  between  parent  and   child.   • Some  caregivers  are  more  sensitive  than  others,  and  some  babies  are  easier   than  others  –>  the  attachment  interaction  varies  widely.   • Caregiver  attachment  impacts  caregiving     Attachment  Theory   • The  fundamental  assumption  in  attachment  research  on  human  infants  is   that  sensitive  responding  by  the  parent  to  the  infant's  needs  results  in  an   infant  who  demonstrates  secure  attachment,  while  lack  of  such  sensitive   responding  results  in  insecure  attachment  (Lamb,  Thompson,  Gardner,   Charnov,  &  Estes,  1984).             Attachment  Theory:  Felt  Security   • “good  enough”  parenting  =  developed  sense  of  felt  security   o explore  world  with  trust,  cared  for,  and  kept  safe  by  caregivers   • critical  period  0-­‐3  years  old   o significant  events  later  in  life  can  shape  the  person     Insecure  Attachment   • Initially  2  types  of  infant  insecure  attachment  were  identified:   o Avoidant   § associated  with  a  caregiver  who  is  unresponsive  and  lacks   warmth   o Anxious-­‐Ambivalent   § associated  with  a  caregiver  who  responds  inconsistently     Ainsworth  -­‐>  “Strange  Situation”   • 12-­‐month  olds  and  parents  separated  form  and  reunited   o Secure  attachment  =  ~60%   § Become  upset  when  the  parent  leaves  the  room   § When  he  or  she  returns,  they  actively  seek  the  parent  and  are   easily  comforted  by  him  or  her   o Anxious  =  ~20%   § Become  extremely  distressed  at  separation   § When  reunited  with  parents,  have  a  difficult  time  being   soothed   § Show  conflicting  behaviors  –  want  to  be  comforted  but  also   may  push  away  when  picked  up   o Avoidant  =  ~20%   § Don't  appear  too  distressed  by  the  separation   § Upon  reunion,  actively  avoid  seeking  contact  with  their  parent,   sometimes  turning  their  attention  to  play  objects  on  the   laboratory  floor     Attachment  Theory:  Infants   • One  of  the  core  ideas  in  attachment  theory  is  that  if  we  have  significant  early   experiences  of  loss  of  caregivers  (either  through  death,  parental  absence,   parental  illness,  or  other  loss)  then  our  relational  abilities  get  interrupted  in   some  consistent  ways.   • These  ideas  have  had  some  impact  on  practices  in  orphanages  in  this   country,  as  well  as  adoption  practices  with  infants  and  young  children     Attachment  Disorders   § Reactive  Disorder   o Result  of  social  neglect  or  other  situations  that  limit  a  young  child’s   opportunity  to  form  relational  attachments,     o Leads  to  a  lack  of  or  incompletely  formed  attachments  to  caregivers   o Correlated  with  low  positive  affect/emotion       § Resemble  Anxiety  and  Depression                    


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