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Biology 162, Week One/Two Plant Notes

by: Jenn Guzman

Biology 162, Week One/Two Plant Notes Biology 162

Jenn Guzman
Cal Poly
GPA 3.3

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These are the first and second parts to Dr. Ritter's lecture on Plant Morphology and Anatomy Introduction. Lecture Dates: Monday 3/28 Monday 4/4
Intro to Organismal Form and Function
Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter
Class Notes
Biology, Biological Sciences, Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter, plants, Plant Anatomy, Plant Morphology, Plant Form and Function, Bio 162
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenn Guzman on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 162 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro to Organismal Form and Function in Biological Sciences at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.

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Date Created: 01/14/16
Lecture Dates: Monday, March 28, 2016 Monday, April 4, 2016 Topic: Intro to Plant Morphology and Anatomy Lectures I and II for Chapter 37 I. Importance of Plants (Begin Lecture I) A. Basic human needs are all directly or indirectly provided for by plants. (*Corn, rice, and wheat) B. Photosynthetic reaction serves as a bridge between chemical and biological sustenance. 1. The mass of a large tree comes from the air (Carbon Dioxide) due to photosynthesis extracting its carbon source from the atmosphere to synthesize carbon compounds. II. Plant Cells: Components Not Found in Animal Cells A. Maintain cell walls of cellulose to provide for rigidity and immobility. Cell walls allow for the capacity of plants to grow to such extreme heights. B. Chloroplasts are double membraned organelles that contain photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll, as the main one) and are responsible for capturing photons of light to carry on photosynthesis. 1. Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O +Light = C6H12O6 + O2 C. Vacuoles are double membraned organelles that store water and other waste products, acting as a waste reservoir, analogous to the animal cell’s lysosome in their waste- processing properties. III.Plant Tissue Systems A. Dermal: outer covering that forms the epidermis, generally responsible for protection of the plant from water and nutrient loss, pathogens, and other organisms. 1. Stomata are specialized part of the dermal tissue in which guard cells surround a tiny pore called a “stoma”. Stomata are generally on the underside of leaves and regulate gas exchange with the atmosphere. 2. Trichomes are tiny hairs on the epidermis. Plants such as the stinging nettles have trichomes with protective chemical compounds (i.e. Histamines) that provide protection for the plant from herbaceous predators. 1 Lecture Dates: Monday, March 28, 2016 Monday, April 4, 2016 B. Ground: all of the “in-between” tissue that forms between the dermal and vascular tissue. It is otherwise referred to as the “filler” components of plants that maintains various functions (i.e. carbohydrate storage, photosynthesis, etc). There are three general types of ground tissues: 1. Parenchyma are regular plant cells, otherwise known as the “workhorses” of the plant. Parenchyma cells have relatively thin cell walls and are the most abundant and versatile plant cells. The tissue in the leaves consist of these cells filled with chloroplasts, and is therefore the primary site of photosynthesis. 2. Collenchyma are generally supportive cells. Their cell walls are thicker while they have a more elongated shape. 3. Sclerenchyma are the hardest cells of the plant. Long sclerenchyma cells are called fibers, while short ones are called sclereids. C. Vascular: responsible for nutrient transport within the plant. 1. Xylem tissue is responsible for water moment and ion transport from the root to the shoot system. Tracheid cells mainly conduct nutrients and some water, while vessel elements are the main source of water transportation due to their width and perforations (less resistance to water flow). 2. Phloem tissue generally conducts sugar, amino acids, chemical signals, and other substances in either direction within the plant between roots and the plant shoot. Sieve tube elements are the long thin cells that have perforated ends that mainly transport sugars and nutrients. Companion cells provide materials to maintain the cytoplasm and plasma membrane of the sieve-tube elements. D. Meristem: specialized fourth tissue where growth occurs. 1. Apical meristems are responsible for primary growth at each tip of the plant, including the tips of the root and shoot systems. Primary growth is an increase in the length of the plant as a result of cellular division in the apical meristems (axillary buds). 2. Lateral meristems are responsible for secondary growth in which the plant increases in girth and stability. This is most commonly seen in the formation of wood. IV. Plant Growth and Development (Begin Lecture II) A. Plants are fixed and maintain large surface areas. Animals, on the other hand, are mobile with larger volumes. 2 Lecture Dates: Monday, March 28, 2016 Monday, April 4, 2016 B. Refer to Figure 37.1 in the Fifth Edition of the Freeman Biological Sciences textbook. 1. At the tip of every shoot is an apical “bud”, or meristem. Apical meristems are primary tissues. These buds grow and divide in primary growth, and continue to form the pattern of nodes, internodes, axillary buds, and leaves. Each axillary bud has the potential for make a branch on the plant. Cellular elongation occurs in the plant shoot. C. Refer to Figure 37.2 in the Fifth Edition of the Freeman Biological Sciences textbook. 1. Modified stems a) Water-storage: enlarged stems with maximized surface area to volume ratio in order to minimize water loss to the environment, such as a cactus. b) Stolons: elongated internodes aboveground that provide for the growth and development of new individuals, such as strawberries. c) Tubers: greater carbohydrate and starch storage underground, such as a potato d) Rhizomes: new individuals are formed via an underground stem, similar to a stolon V. Secondary Growth: perennial plants start to form woody (secondary) tissues, while roots and stems get wider. (*Perennial: experience yearly growth) A. Between the primary xylem and phloem resides the ability to form secondary xylem and phloem due to the vascular cambium. The vascular cambium thickens the stem by forming secondary xylem and phloem. B. Animals are regenerative, in which bodily cells congregate at the site of an injury. Plants, however, are generative, in that they continue to grow and form tissues over any injuries they may experience. In essence, they do not have the ability to “heal” as animals do. Wood is secondary xylem found on the inside of the tree. There is relatively less C. phloem since the phloem stays alive and active. Xylem dies and hardens to create more support for the tree as it accumulates nutrients and other hardening materials during excessive transportation while it was alive. More wood is grown on top of the branch as a reaction to gravity, not so much as a result of a phototropic effect. This is analogous to using a cable wire system to support heavy weight in building structures. Older xylem is located near the center of the tree’s trunk. 1. Sapwood vs. Hardwood 3 Lecture Dates: Monday, March 28, 2016 Monday, April 4, 2016 a) Heartwood is the innermost portion of the wood that provides structural support but no longer transports water. It can be removed without hurting the survival of the tree. b) Sapwood transports water, and is found in between the outer bark covering and and the inner heartwood. D. The cork cambium is the secondary meristematic tissue that makes new cork cells for the outside. Cork cells are dead at maturity. After maturation, the cork cells replace the outer epidermis. Cork develops from parenchyma cells in the cortex to form a protective over covering. VI. The Function of the Leaves A. Leaves are photosynthetic organs that regulate water loss via transpiration through the presence of stomata. They maintain a high surface area for the little volume that they maintain for photosynthetic regions. 1. Thorns are modified parts of the leaf, more specifically the stipule, and is not a modified stem as made out to be by the textbook. 4


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