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11 Systems of the Human Body

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by: Madeleine Weitzner

11 Systems of the Human Body SCI2030

Marketplace > Johnson and Wales University > Biology > SCI2030 > 11 Systems of the Human Body
Madeleine Weitzner
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About this Document

Each system is broken down into the smallest unit.
Human Physiology & Anatomy I
Prof. Cohen
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeleine Weitzner on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCI2030 at Johnson and Wales University taught by Prof. Cohen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology & Anatomy I in Biology at Johnson and Wales University.


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Date Created: 01/14/16
A&P Lecture 1       A NATOMY : is the study of body structures and the physical relationships between them         (ana = up; tomy = cut)  to “cut up”      Anatomy: is subdivided into:  A.  Gross (large) Anatomy:  considers features visible with the naked eye B.   Micro Anatomy: considers microscopic structures not visible with the naked eye, such as:        Histology – study of tissues &   Cytology – study of cells P HYSIOLOGY : is the study of how living organisms perform body functions   Physiology: is more complex and harder to examine than anatomy because it is dynamic Pathology – study of diseases  pathos = disease;  genesis = origin;  pathogenesis = origin of a disease a/dis/dys = without;   trophy = nutrient;  dystrophy/atrophy = without nutrient       Etiology = the causes/origin of a disease             Prognosis = the prospect of recovery from a disease – your disease forecast       Please note: Genesis is a term used by science researchers, while etiology is a term used by physicians. BRIEF OVERVIEW OF ORGAN SYSTEMS: structures & functions 1.  Integumentary: Epidermis, Dermis, and Hypodermis          Function: Controls body temp via evaporative cooling (sweating)  Dermatologist  2.  Skeletal: Functions: Body frame; protective shield for int++nal organs (rib cage);     Stores minerals such as Calcium (Ca )     Forms Red Blood Cells (RBCs) and White Blood Cells (WBC) in the bone marrow     of long bones          Tendons = attach muscle to bone  Ligaments = attach bone to bone 3.  Muscular: Functions: locomotion; maintains posture; main source of body heat via shivering 4.  Nervous: Central Nervous System (CNS) – brain & spinal cord           Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – all other nerves not in CNS           Functions: “Houston­central control”  Neurologist 1 5.  Endocrine: Glands and the hormones they produce  Ex: the pancreas is an organ that produces the hormones Insulin & Glucagon, so, diabetics see  Endocrinologists. Functions: Hormones initiate and direct the activities of all other organ systems 6.  Cardiovascular: Heart, blood vessels (arteries & veins), blood ++ Functions: transports blood, O ,2glucose, minerals (Ca  & P), waste (CO ), an2 electrolytes  (ions) to and from cells  Cardiologist 7.  Lymphatic: lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, appendix, white blood cells      Function: this is our primary immune system  Immunologist 8.  Respiratory:          The path of airflow: This part will be EXTRA CREDIT for quiz 1 Nostrils  pharynx (throat)  larynx (voice box)  trachea (breathing tube)  bronchi  lungs  alveoli  Functions: oxygenates blood via inhalation & removes CO  (carb2  dioxide) via exhalation Functional unit is the alveoli which are microscopic spheres within the deepest parts of the lungs that facilitate    gas exchange   Pulmonologist 9.  Digestive: Function: to convert food (protein, lipids, and carbs) into energy, Adenosine tri­phosphate (ATP) The GI tract is a long continuous tube that starts with the mouth and ends with the anus:  It is actually  considered to be outside the body.   This part will be EXTRA CREDIT on Quiz1  Mouth  pharynx (throat)  esophagus (feeding tube)  stomach     sm. intestine  large intesrectum   anus  1. Duodenum 2. Jejunum 3. Ileum  Gastroenterologist 10. Urinary:  Kidneys, bladder, ureter, and urethra            Function: long term control of blood pressure; filters and purifies blood by removing waste                 through urine  Urologist – treats male issues  Nephrologist – is a Urologist with a specialty in kidneys/kidney failure 11. Reproductive:   Gonads = reproductive organs: testes & ovaries  Gametes = sperm & egg   Function: survival of the species via procreation  Urologist – treat males 2  Obstetrician/gynecologist (OBGYN) for females    END 3


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