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Chapter 1 - Introduction to Cognitive Psychology

by: Jacqueline Sison

Chapter 1 - Introduction to Cognitive Psychology PSYC 317 - 004

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC 317 - 004 > Chapter 1 Introduction to Cognitive Psychology
Jacqueline Sison
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About this Document

These notes highlights what cognitive psychology is and how it developed.
Cognitive Psychology
Stephanie Tulk
Class Notes
Cognitive Psychology, gmu, george mason university, study, notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacqueline Sison on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 317 - 004 at George Mason University taught by Stephanie Tulk in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 01/14/16
Chapter 1 ­ Intro to Cognitive Psych  ­ The person’s date remarks his contribution to psychology  ­​**) = things to take away from concepts  What is Cognitive  The study of the mind and its achievement within  Psychology​ ?   ★ Cognitions in mental processes   What does the mind do?   ➢ Perception     ➢ Attention   The mind   ➢ Memory   creates and control,  ★ Cognitions in representing then in functioning   creates representations of  ➢ Knowledge   the world   ○ differentiate details     ➢ Visual Imagery     ➢ Language     ➢ Problem Solving      ➢ Judgment, Decisions, and Reasoning         Which category does emotion & intelligence go into?        Where in cognition do you determine normal functioning mind?       First cognitive experiment: Franciscus Donders,  1868 physiologist    ➔ “How long does it take to make a decision?”  dependent v  reaction time     ­ time of perception to response  control   simple reaction time(perceive→beh. response)    ­ pushing button when lights turn on   independent v  choice reaction time ( ​perceive → decide → beh. response)     ­ pushing left button → left light     ­ pushing right button → right light     **mind is measured through inferring about observed behaviors      First Laboratory of  Wilhelm Wundt, ​ 1879   scientific psychology   ➔ Structuralism​  ­​sensations make experiences   (abandoned)  ➔ Analytic Introspection  ​­individual explanation about    their experience and thoughts    ◆ cons: variability between people & lack of    validation due to interpretation/inferring.     ** studying behavior under controlled experiments       Memory experiment   Hermann Ebbinghaus, ​ 1885 psychologist    ➔ “What is the time course of forgetting?”   Quantitative Measure  Savings:​  amount of “forget” within delay                  = (original time to learn) ­ (time to relearn after delay)     ➢ smaller savings → more forgetting     Savings Curve:  ​memory drops first 2 days after first learning    then plateaus (aka retention of information)     **quantitative measurement of behavior describing the mind          First psychology textbook  William James, 1890 psychologist     ● we must withdrawal other attentions in order to    concentrate on one detail     **observed his own mind/experiences vs. experiments       Shifts due to Behaviorism  Abandoned study of the mind and its consciousness     → study of observable behavior          Little Albert Experiment  John Watson​ 1913 PhD (founder of behaviorism)     Similar t Classical Conditioning    ● pairing natural stimulus t​ eutral stimulus creating a    change in beh. (reaction to natural stim.) to neutral stim.    **focused only in observed beh → mental processes = irrelevant      Operant Conditioning  B.F. Skinner, 1938 PhD     ● focused on increase/decrease of behavior due to     ○ positive (giving) & negative (taking) of     ○ reinforcement or punishment     **focused on how tocontrol beh.       Behaviorism  study of observable behavior due to stimulus­response       Reemergence of the Mind   Edward Chance Tolman,  1918­1954 (early cognitive (n)psych)    ● cognitive map ​­ ​oncept of a map of a location...    Noam Chomsky, ​ 1959 linguist     ● language is not only developed by operant conditioning    nor stimulus­response     **learning about cognitive processes, yo​ave​to infer what    behaviors suggests about the mind       Cognitive Revolution  the shift from behaviorism, the study of stimulus­ response to    the study of the mind     ➢ information­processing approach:  order in which    mental processes engage in for cognitions     ○ The use of computers→flow diagrams     Colin Cherry 1953 psychologist     ● experiment on attention focused on​ttended messages    vsunattended messages  ​while receiving both at the    same time     ○ could hear but not understand unattended mess.     Donald Broadbent,​ 1958 psychologist    1. (input) of both (un)attended messages     2. (filt) which messages goes through     3. (detector) understands/process information to memory           Computers and their  John McCarthy​ , 1950 mathematics professor  Artificial Intelligence    Mechanics possessing intelligence if it were created ot behave    as humans would         Simon and Newell, ​   Logic Theorist  Program to solve/proof math formulas indicating the use of logic     ­ but in computers     **humans takes only certain amount of information (i.e. 7 things)      Evolution of research   Sian Beilock​ 2010    ­ relationship between “choking” and w ​orking memory​  ­    retaining info while it is still processing     ­ how the relationship occurs during high/low pressure     ­ Interpreting/infer results to working memory (mind)    ** Initial findings are followed by questions through observation    from results of experiments, ect.       Models representing  structural models ­ ​physical structures resulting in functions  structure & processes  ● Simplify ­ focused portion of a structure and shows how    its parts connect and functions together   ○ i.e. pain matrix = structure represents function   process models ​ ­​visually provides process of operation  (usually cognitive)// shows with arrows depicting the connection   ● i.e. Filter model of attention ­ Broadbent describing a  process rather than a structure of its location   ● i.e. refer (pg. 19) figures 1.16 & 1.17     extra info   encoding ­ process of learning material → retrieval ­ process of remembering material   mini stories ­ presentation of ideasthen its content 


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