Measuring Crime and Victimization - Chapter 2
Measuring Crime and Victimization - Chapter 2 CORR 106
Minnesota State University, Mankato
Popular in Introduction to Criminal Justice Systems
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
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Date Created: 01/14/16
Measuring Crime and Victimization Chapter 2 Tuesday January 26 2016 849 PM Reading Measuring Crime and Victimization Crime data is dif cult to compare from one time period to another because of the errors in data collection The Public Demand for Reliable Crime Data Emerged in 19205 and 305 quotcrime wavequot believed to be sweeping country because of new headlines with robberies shootings etc Passage of eighteenth amendment in 1919 o Prohibited manufacture sale and possession of alcoholic beverages added fuel to re t 0 increased instead of decreasing crimes 0 Gangs wanted control of the lucrative illegal sale of alcoholic beverages 0 Crime bosses al Capone were often looked at as public heroes instead of public enemies Crime considered a big city problem 0 Crime surveys began Cleveland Ohio and Chicago Illinois 0 Motivated in order to correct major de ciencies in the criminal justice system c published the rst national report of crime in the united states in 1927 o Convinced congress of the bene t 0 Congress authorized the FBI to gather nationwide crime data and publish it Published rst nationwide report of crime in 1930 titled the Uniform Crime Report Today there are two nationally recognized measure of crime data The Uniform Crime Report The National Crime Victimization Survey ll I The Uniform Crime Report Passed on June 11 1930 First federal legislation mandating the collecting of crime data FBI in charge Is a record of crime reported to law enforcement agencies Data was collected stored and transmitted manually Rules for counting crime 0 Only those that were considered most re ective of public safety were counted 0 Collects data on only 27 criminal violations which are divided into two categories serious crimes and less serious crimes part 1 and part 2 offenses Part 1 Most serious Murder manslaughter forcible rape robbery aggravated assault property crimes of burglary larcenytheft and motor vehicle theft arson was added in 1979 Rate of crimes is known as the 0 Part 2 21 less serious offenses Simple assault sex offenses drug abuse violations 0 would count only the most serious offense when multiple offenses occurred and it would count mutipe victims of a single criminal incident as a single crime 0 Resulted in underreporting of crime because less serious offenses would not be included in the crime data and multiple crime event would not be included in the counting The modern UCR 0 Crime data are published in quarterly and annual reports 0 refers to the percentage of crimes that are solved versus crimes that are unsolved Solved means the police know the perpetrator of the crime 0 The crime clock 0 Reports how often a crime occurs 0 Represents the annual ratio of crime to xed time intervals 0 Uses of UCR data 0 Examining crime trends 0 Measure of crime rates factor in indexes calculating the quality of life in US cities and as a factor in policy decisions A Snapshot of the UCR see book page 29 for percentages and data Flaws in UCR data 0 Represents crimes that are only known to the police 0 Data is about local and state crimes but de nitions of crimes are not the same from place to place National Crime Victimization Survey A mailed survey of a representative sample of US households that gathers detailed information about crimes from victims 0 Originated in 1972 when it was recognized that a signi cant number of crimes go unreported to the police 0 Unreported crime is called the 0 See book page 31 for goals of victimization survey 0 De ciencies of the NCVS o Depends on selfreported data by victims which may be inaccurate Comparisons between the UCR and the NCVS o The NCVS purpose is to capture crime not reported to law enforcement o UCR reports crime against individuals whereas the NCVS reports crimes against households NCVS data does not have information regarding the location of the crime 0 Both do not have common de nitions for some crimes Other Crime Data Sources 0 The National IncidentBased Reporting System 0 Result of FBI trying to make up for the shortcomings of the UCR o Launched in March of 1988 0 An incidentbased reporting system in which more comprehensive crime information is presented 0 Additional data about crimes are reported 0 Place of occurrence weapon use type and value of property damaged or stolen personal characteristics of the offender and victim nature of any relationship between the two and the disposition of the complaint Other Criminal Justice Data Banks 0 Major agencies include the Bureau ofJustice Statistics the National Criminal Justice Reference Service and the US Department ofJustice with its Sourcebook of Criminal justice Statistics Bureau ofjustice Statistics Established in 1979 Component of the Of ce ofJustice Programs in the US Department ofJustice Collects analyzes publishes and disseminates information on crime criminal offenders victims of crime and the operation ofjustice systems at all levels of government Publishes some annual and periodic reports of statistical data 0 A primary source of statistical data on the criminal justice system National Criminal justice Reference Service Established in 1972 Federally funded Offers justice and drugrelated info to support research policy and progam development worldwide Holds one of the largest criminal and juvenile justice libraries and databases in the world the NCjRS Abstracts Database Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 0 Established in 1973 Brings together data from more than 200 sources about many aspects of criminal justice in the United States Funded by the US Department ofjustice Bureau ofjustice Statistics 0 Data not found in more specialized databases such as the NCVS and the UCR can be found in the Sourcebook because of the wide range of sources collected from Bureau ofjustice Statistics 0 Under the Of ce ofjustice Programs US Department ofjustice 0 Established in 1979 under the justice Systems Improvement Act of 1979 0 Mission is to collect analyze publish and disseminate information on crime criminal offenders victims of crime and the operation of the justice systems at all levels of government 0 See page 34 for major data reports of the 85 School Crime Data required college campuses to make a public disclosure of crimes occurring on their campuses whether or not the crimes were reported to the police required the collection of data frequency seriousness and incidences of violence in elementary and secondary schools State Surveys and SelfReports Scholars private research institutions and government agencies conduct numerous surveys of perpetrators and offenders using selfreports Survey results often show that UCR data underestimates the rate of actual offending for certain crimes 0 Ex Illegal drug use Caution Crime Statistics Public Safety and Predicting the Future o Victimization 0 Measures of crime data do not necessarily re ect the public39s fear of this aspect 0 Ex Elderly have the most fear of victimization but they are the least victimized age group according to data 0 Young adults least afraid but most victimized Data indicates that the rise and fall of crime rates is not directly correlated with the public39s fear of crime 0 Ex See page 35 story of Honolulu Police Department a indicate what crime has occurred not what crime will occur 0 Do not predict the future 0 0 Data may still be unreliable when using these comparisons of crime data from one time period to another The Other Side of Crime Victimology o is the study of victims and their patterns of victimization Emphasis is on explaining why certain people or groups experience victimization at certain times and in certain places 0 Relates to how victims are treated by the criminal justice system and what rights they have The Demographics of Criminal Victimization Victimization data shows a high degree of consistency 0 Where and when victimization occurs and who is victimized 12 to 24 yrs old have greatest chance of becomin the victims of crime especially violent crime From early to mid205 the rate of victimization decreases Over 65 years has the lowest rate of victimization for all crimes across gender and race Males and females similar rates More than half report their attacker was a nonstranger Violent victimization of women is more likely to be repetitive than as an isolated event Property crime is often not reported to the police Nonwhites are victimized at rates two to three times higher Households in which property victimization is greatest have the least income Situational Characteristics of Victimization Victimization is not randomly distributed in time or place 0 More likely to occur in places where there is a high density of highrisk social groups 0 was one of the rst to hypothesize a connection between the characteristics of the city and the crime rate o 2011 large urban centers reported generally higher rates of victimization than other communities 0 Data indicates that the victimization rates for some crimes in rural and suburb areas are rising o Explained by which states that as law enforcement practices and programs in larger cities make it more dif cult for criminals to prey on victims the offenders relocate to areas with fewer criminal justice resources Theoretical Explanations for Victimization Important to ask what factors in uence who is victimized and when the victimization occurs 0 Two explanations as to the cause of victimization are the victimprecipitation theories and lifestyle theories of victimization VictimPrecipitation Theories Based on the concept that victims themselves precipitate contribute to provoke or actually cause the outcome of their victimization Assume that some crimes especially violent crimes are interactions or transactions between victims and offenders o Victim often in uences his or her own criminal victimization Three facets 0 Person39s action or lack of that makes his or her victimization more likely o 0 Some individuals or groups have a quality that makes them more likely to become victims of crimes 0 Suggests victim is primary cause of his or her victimization Can be applied only to certain types of violent crime because the theories have limited explanation value Lifestyle Theories of Victimization 0 Explain personal victimization as an outgrowth of a victim39s highrisk behavior patterns and associations Explains why victimizations can differ in quantity but remain the same in quality 0 Ex why same subgroups are victimized from city to city 0 Hindelang Gottfedson and Garofalo determined that for a personal victimization to occur three conditions must be met 1 Actors must have occasion to intersect in time and space 2 Some source of dispute or claim must arise between the two which the victim is perceived as an appropriate object of the victimization by the offender 3 The offender must be willing and able to threaten or use force to achieve the desired end o Is the patterned routines of a person39s everyday activities that predict the chances of exposure to highrisk situations that can result in victimization Differential Association Refers to the concept that people who associate regularly with others engaged in unlawful behavior are more likely to be victimized because of their increased exposure to highrisk situations and environments Routine Activities Theory Focuses on the contexts of crime in terms of the opportunities for victimization An analysis of changes in levels of crime over time that recognizes people39s everyday actions as components of victimization Assumes that all humans are motivated by the desire to have things that give them pleasure or bene t them and to avoid those things and situations that in ict pain 0 Differential opportunities that exist for victimization determined by the structure of our everyday lives Focuses on the circumstances in which crime occurs 0 Limited to an explanation for predatory crime 0 is an act involving direct physical contact between at least one offender and at least one person or object which that offender attempts to take or damage Unconcerned with the role the victim plays 0 Treats offender as active and victim as passive Rational Choice Theory of Victimization Based on belief that human behavior is directed toward those things that bring pleasure or bene t or that minimize painful unpleasant experiences 0 If correct altering the balance of costs and bene ts for likely offenders can reduce victimization 0 Target hardening foundation for many popular crimereduction programs 0 Ex Neighborhood Watch programs increase lighting and surveillance based on the assumption that the changes will cause a potential criminal to reevaluate the risk of committing a crime The Victims39 Rights Movement Victims often suffer longtime physical and psychological harm a refers to the victimization caused not by the criminal act but by the inappropriate response of institutions and individuals Grew out of the dissatisfaction of victims with the passive role neglect and minimization of harm they suffered 0 Important events to create emergence 0 1960s concern with general rights 0 Increased awareness and provided nancial support for victims39 assistance programs by government initiatives 0 Number of victims39 rights organizations increased dramatically O Accomplishments helped pass the 1984 Victims of Crime Act and the 1982 Victim and Witness Protection act 0 was made by president Ronald Reagan in 1982 0 Made more than 60 recommendations for new legislation to be enacted to protect the rights and interests of crime victims in the criminal justice system Crime Victims39 Rights Act of 2004 o The legislation was the outgrowth of an eight year campaign led by senators Jon kyl and dianne feinstein to provide strong assurances to crime victims that their rights would be recognized by the criminal justice system c the most successful effort of the crime victims39 rights movement to date Civil Remedies for Victims 0 Civil suits are empowering because crime victims are directly involved 0 Victim decides to pursue a civil action against the offender Ex OJ Simpson case 0 Crime victims bringing suits against third parties for contributing to their victimization Disadvantage nancial burden falls on the victim o means that an attorney agrees to forgo payment in return for a percentage of the potential settlement Notes off PowerPoin Why Measure Crime 0 Funding 0 Drives how much law enforcement and facilities available 0 Program planning 0 Public wants to know 0 Measure quality of life What is Needed to Measure Classi cations De ne laws 0 0 Goal is public safety 0 Individual and society is wornged Prosecuted by government 0 Disputes between private parties Disputes between entities o 39torts39 private wrongs 0 Chart 0 Issue 0 Area of concert 0 Wrongful act 0 Party bringing suit 0 Party who responds Standard of proof Remedy o Rightsduties between individuals Harm to person or business Person who suffered plaintiff Person who caused suffering defendant Preponderance of evidence Compensation for the harm 0 Offense is against whole society Violate statue of something prohibiting some activity 0 State prosecutor Person who allegedly committed a crime defendant 0 Beyond a reasonable doubt o Punishment ne incarceration probation Crime classi cation 0 o More serious Punishable by death or prison 1 yr Cap al lst 2nd 3rd 0 0 Less serious 0 Fine of less than 1 yr ofjail countylocal Gross Petty o 0 Crimes only illegal because of your age Curfew Tobacco Gambling Alcohol 0 Wrong even wo law prohibiting it Goes against nature Same from culture to culture Ex Sexual assault murder incest o Humanmade laws Not inherently wrong but may re ect culture Differ throughout world Ex Domestic abuse speeding polygamy Measurement Tools Record of crime reported to law enforcement agencies Voluntary participation nearly universal Public safety concerns 27 violations Part1 More serious violent crimes 0 Part 2 Less serious 0 0 Only registers the highest crime per incident most serious or severe crime 0 solved O 00039 o Flaws a Only report crimes known to police Fear retaliation People think police are incompetentcorrupt Agency cooperation is voluntary 0 De nition of crime differs between states guidelines etc Rapesexual assault laws may differwording 0 Measures crimes against a speci c person 0 Created in 1972 because of the crimes that go unreported to law enforcement 0 Of cial data is lower than actual crime rate 0 Police won39t do anything Retaliationmore victimization 0 Fear arrest immigration status 0 Believe police are part of the problem 0 Victimization information from homes in US 2 times a year for 3 12 years 0 Flaws Cannot pinpoint geographical location because it is anonymous 0 People may still not report 0 Crimes against household Victimology Who 1224 years old especially violent crime Females more sexual assault 50 are perpetrated by a nonstranger higher for female victims Violent victimizations of women tends to be over time rather than a random attack Only 27 sexual assault reported in 2011 o Nonwhites are 23 times more likely to be a victim Situational Chicago School of Criminology JA vs AW J poverty abuse violence no high school degree A AP classes church sports driver39s license J is more likely to be involved in crime whether the cause of crime or victim VictimPrecipitation Theories action or lack of action that makes victimization likely 39easy target39 or some characteristic that makes them more Nl 39 likely victim 3 victim is the primary cause of his or her victimization 0 Have limited explanation value not applicable in certain circumstances Place blame on the victim rather than the criminal Theories of Victimization o Highrisk behavior gt victimization 0 Exposure to high risk situationsenvironments Secondary Victimization Shame blame shun media coverage children guilt Deals with differential association On Test Homicides in Minnesota have gone down since the 19705 0 Human traf cking in Minnesota has gone down 0 Criminal violent crime has overall decreased since 2006
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