Week 1 Notes - A First Look at Anatomy
Week 1 Notes - A First Look at Anatomy ANTR 350
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenay DeCaussin on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTR 350 at Michigan State University taught by Lindsey Jenny in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views.
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Date Created: 01/14/16
A First Look at Anatomy 01/11/2016 ▯ Important Figures in A&P ▯ Herophilus early descriptions of anatomic structures ▯ William Harvey The basis for modern embryology ▯ Hippocrates belief that the body should be treated as a whole ▯ Andreas Vesalius utilized “refined observations” in medicine and anatomy ▯ Galen of Pergamum the basic teaching principles of the first European medical school ▯ Anatomy vs. Physiology Anatomy: the study of structure, “to cut apart”, examines relationships between parts of the body as well as structure of individual organs Physiology: studies the function of body structures anatomy suggests what they physiology may be the two can not be completely separated ▯ Microscopic Anatomy examines structures that cannot be viewed by the unaided eye scientists look at individual cells of slices of body through microscope cytology: cellular anatomy; study of single body cells and internal structures histology: study of tissues; wider approach by examining how groups of specialized cells and productions function for a common purpose ▯ Gross Anatomy “macroscopic anatomy” structure and relationships of large body parts that are visible to the unaided eye (stomach, brain, heart, kidneys) investigations include dissecting preserved specimens Has several approaches: o comparative anatomy: similarities and differences in anatomy of different species o developmental anatomy: changes in structure within an individual from conception through maturity o embryology: developmental changes occurring prior to birth o regional anatomy: structures in a particular region as one unit o surface anatomy: both superficial anatomic marking and internal body structures as they relate to the skin covering them o systemic anatomy: gross anatomy of each system in body (urinary system is kidneys, ureters and urethra, urinary bladder) some focus on diagnosing medical conditions or advancing research o pathologic anatomy: all anatomic changes resulting from disease o radiographic anatomy: relationships among internal structures that may be visualized by specific medical imaging procedures like ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or x-ray. o surgical anatomy: anatomic landmarks used before and after surgery ▯ Structural Organization of the Body simplest most complex o chemical level atoms and molecules o cellular level cells: smallest living structures, basic units of structure and function o tissue level tissues: precise organizations of similar cells that perform specialized functions epithelial tissue: coves exposed surfaces, lines body cavities connective tissue: protects, supports, and interconnects body parts and organs muscle tissue: produces movement nervous tissue: conducts impulses for internal communication o organ level organ: contains two or more tissue types working together to perform specific, complex functions; has multiple tissue types working at one goal o organ system level related organs work together to achieve function ex: organs of respiratory system collaborate for gas exchange on surface of lungs o organismal level highest level, all body systems function independently in a single living human, the organism o as structural level increases in complexity, the effects of a disruption magnify ▯ Characteristics of Living Things Organization o structure and order of body Metabolism o metabolism : various chemical reactions that involve breaking down ingested nutrients, using cells’ own energy to perform a function, contracting/relaxing muscles to move body [function] - enables body to continue acquiring the energy needed for life activities o exchange nutrients, gases, and waste with environment Growth and Development o organisms increase size and specialization by assimilating materials from environment, becoming more complex, sophisticated Responsiveness o sense and respond to internal and external environment Adaptation o alter structure, physiologic process, behavioral trait to increase reproductive success long-term Regulation o maintain a consistent internal environment called homeostasis o environment constantly changes, every organism must be able to keep a steady state Reproduction o produce new cells for growth, maintenance, repair o produce sex cells (gametes) ▯ Introduction to Organ Systems some organisms metabolize over surface membranes, but humans are more complex and need organ systems there are 11 organ systems [function of organ systems] is to maintain homeostasis skeletal system o support and protection o site of hemopoiesis (blood cell production) o stores calcium and phosphorus o provides sites for muscle attachments o includes bones, cartilage integumentary system o provides protection, regulates body temperature o site of cutaneous receptors o synthesizes vitamin D o prevents water loss muscular system o produces body movement o generates heat when muscles contract endocrine system o glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones, some regulate body and cellular growth, chemical levels in body, and reproductive functions nervous system o regulatory; controls body movement, responds to sensory stimuli, helps control all other systems of body o responsible for consciousness, intelligence, memory cardiovascular system o heart, blood, and blood vessels o heart moves blood through blood vessels to distribute hormones, nutrients, and gases, and pick up waste products respiratory system o exchange of gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide) between blood and air in the lungs o lungs, bronchi, trachea, larnyx lymphatic system o transports and filters lymph (interstitial fluid transported through lymph vessels) and initiates an immune response when necessary o tonsils, spleen, lymph nodes, lymph vessels digestive system o mechanically and chemically digests food materials, absorbs nutrients, and expels waste products o esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine urinary system o filters the blood and removes waste products from blood o concentrates waste products in form of urine, expels urine from the body o urethra, urinary bladder, kidney reproductive system o male produce male sex cells (sperm) and male hormones (like testosterone), transfer sperm to female o female produce female sex cells (oocytes) and produce female hormones, receive sperm from male, site of fertilization of oocyte, site of growth and development of embryo and fetus ▯ Anatomic Position person stands upright, feet parallel and flat on floor, head is level, eyes forward, arms at sides with palms facing forward and thumbs pointing away from body provides common reference for describing parts of body all functional and directional terms refer to body in this position ▯ Sections and Planes section implies actual cut or slice to expose internal anatomy plane implies imaginary flat surface passing through body; 3 major o coronal plane “frontal plane” is a vertical plane that divides body into anterior(front) and posterior(back) parts o transverse plane “cross-sectional plane” “horizontal plane” cuts perpendicularly along long axis of body at origin; divides into superior(upper) and inferior(lower) CT or Computed Tomography scans provide transverse sectional images of body o midsagittal plane “median plane” extends through body or organ vertically and divides the structure into right and left halves; only one parallel and to the left or right is a sagittal plane that divides the structure into right and left portions that may not be equal; infinite number possible used to show internal body parts o numerous minor oblique planes that pass through specimen at an angle ▯ Directional Terms anterior – in front of posterior – in back of dorsal – back side of human body ventral – front side of human body superior – closer to head inferior – closer to feet caudal – at the rear or tail end cranial – at the head end rostral – toward the nose medial – toward midline of body lateral – away from midline of body ipsilateral – on the same side contralateral – on the opposite side deep (internal) – on the inside, underneath another structure superficial (external) – on the outside proximal – closest to point of attachment to trunk distal – furthest from point of attachment to trunk ▯ Regional Anatomy human body is divided into 2 main regions o axial region includes head, neck, and trunk; forms main vertical axis of the body o appendicular region includes limbs, or appendages, that attach to body’s axis ▯ Anterior Directional Terms cephalic – head frontal – forehead orbital – eye buccal – cheek mental – chin nasal – nose oral – mouth cervical – neck deltoid – shoulder axillary – armpit sternal – sternum pectoral – chest mammary – breast brachial – arm antecubital – front of elbow antebrachial – forearm abdominal – abdomen coxal – hip carpal – wrist palmar – palm digital – finger femoral – thigh patellar – kneecap pelvic – pelvis inguinal – groin pubic – genitals cural – leg pes – foot tarsal – ankle dorsum of the foot – top of foot digital - toe ▯ Posterior Directional Terms cranial – surrounding the brain occipital – back of head auricular – ear deltoid – shoulder thoracic – back area of sternum, chest, and breast brachial – arm vertebral – spinal column olecranal – elbow abdominal – back of abdomen lumbar – lower back antebrachial – back of forearm sacral – under lower back, center, between buttocks gluteal – buttocks manus – hand dorsum of the hand – back of hand femoral – thigh perineal – genital area in back popliteal – back of knee sural – calf calcaneal – heel plantar – sole of foot ▯ Body Cavities and Membranes Axial region is subdivided into two areas: Posterior Aspect has two enclosed cavities that are both encased in bone and thus are physically and developmentally different from the ventral cavity “dorsal body cavity” cranial cavity formed by the cranium and houses the brain vertebral canal formed by the individual bones of the vertebral column and contains the spinal corn ▯ Ventral Cavity arises from space called the coelom that forms during embryonic development eventually splits into thoracic cavity and inferior abdominopelvic cavity with the formation of the thoracic diaphragm, a muscular partition that develops between these cavities both cavities are lined by thin serous membranes that have two layers – parietal layer that lines internal surface of body wall, and visceral layer that covers external surface organs (viscera) between parietal and visceral layers of serous membranes is a thin serous cavity, a potential space capable of becoming larger cavity. serous membranes secrete liquid called serous fluid within a serous cavity that has the consistency of oil, [serves as lubricant for organs rubbing against one another] Thoracic Cavity o mediastinum is the median space in thoracic cavity containing the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and major blood vessels heart is enclosed by two-layered serous membrane called the pericardium parietal pericardium is the outermost layer, forming sac around heart visceral pericardium forms heart’s external surface pericardial cavity is potential space between parietal and visceral pericardia, contains serous fluid o right and left sides contain the lungs, lined by two-layered serous membrane called the pleura outer layer of pleura is parietal pleura, lines internal surface of thoracic wall inner layer is visceral pleura, covers external surface of the lung narrow, moist, potential space between layers is pleural cavity, has lubricating serous fluid Abdominopelvic Cavity o abdominal cavity : superior to line between hip bones contains most organs of digestive system, as well as the kidneys and ureters of urinary system o pelvic cavity: inferior to line between hip bones contains distal part of large intestine, urinary bladder and urethra, internal reproductive organs o peritoneum is a moist, two-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity parietal peritoneum is outer layer, lines internal walls of cavity visceral peritoneum is inner layer, serous, ensheathes external surfaces of most digestive organs peritoneal cavity has lubricating serous fluid and is between layers ▯ **Table 1.4 Body Cavities** ▯ Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants ▯ There are 9 abdominopelvic regions w/two transverse planes, two sagittal – arranged in three rows (superior, middle, inferior), three columns (left, middle, right) epigastric region: superior region in middle column o contains part of liver, part of stomach, duodenum, part of pancreas, both adrenal glands umbilical region: middle region, middle column o contains transverse colon (middle part), part of small intestine, and branches of the blood vessels to the lower limbs hypogastric region: inferior region in middle column o part of small intestine, urinary bladder, and sigmoid colon of large intestine right and left hypochondriac regions: superior, lateral to epigastric o right contains part of liver, gallbladder, part of right kidney o left contains part of stomach, spleen, left colic flexure of large intestine, part of left kidney right and left lumbar regions: middle, lateral to umbilical o right: ascending colon and right colic flexure of the large intestine, superior part of cecum, part of right kidney, part of small intestine o left: descending colon, part of left kidney, part of small intestine right and left iliac regions: inferior, lateral to hypogastric o right: inferior end of cecum, appendix, part of small intestine o left: junction of parts of colon, part of small intestine ▯ Clinical View: Medical Imagining Procedures Radiography: x-rays; primary way of gaining noninvasive visual o shows bones, dense tissues like tumors, teeth Sonography: ultrasound; second most used visual method o used for obstetrics, soft tissues o avoids harmful effects of x-rays, but doesn’t produce sharp image Computed Tomography (CT): or “CAT” scan, more sophisticated x-rays, images of slices of body, sharpest image o for identifying tumors, aneurysms, kidney stones, cerebral hemorrhages, abnormalities Digital subtraction angiography (DSA): modified 3D x-ray done before and after putting fluid through blood o used to view blood vessels, in angioplasties Dynamic Spatial Reconstruction (DSR): o 3D image of organs o used for heart and flow through blood vessels o information about organ’s normal movement, changes in internal volume o different from CT in that it shows movement of organs Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): o visualizes soft tissues better than CT, but bone does not show up as well, makes patients claustrophobic o sees white and gray matter of nervous system o maps brain function based on oxygen levels and blood flow Position Emission Tomography (PET): analyzes metabolic state of a tissue at the time and determines which tissues are most active o reveals damaged heart tissues, levels of brain activity, tracking cancer spreads ▯ End of Chapter questions ▯ Matching ▯ 1. cranial – toward the head ▯ 2. cytology – study of cells ▯ 3. responsiveness – detect and react to stimuli ▯ 4. inguinal region – groin ▯ 5. caudal – toward the tail ▯ 6. development – structural change in the body ▯ 7. vertebral cavity – contains the spinal cord ▯ 8. histology – study of tissues ▯ 9. mediastinum – thoracic cavity ▯ 10. systemic anatomy – study of organs of one system ▯ ▯ Multiple Choice ▯ 1. Cutting a midsagittal section through the body separates the (d) right and left halves of the body. ▯ 2. Examination of superficial anatomic markings and internal body structures as they relate to the covering skin is called (b) surface anatomy. ▯ 3. Which of the following regions corresponds to the forearm? (b) antebrachial. ▯ 4. The state of maintaining a constant internal environment is called (b) homeostasis. ▯ 5. The (c) organ level of organization is composed of two or more tissue types that work together to perform a common function. ▯ 6. Which body cavity is located inferior to the diaphragm and superior to a horizontal line drawn between the superior edges of the hip bones? (a) abdominal cavity. ▯ 7. The term used when referring to a body structure that is below, or at the lower level than, another structure is (c) inferior. ▯ 8. Which medical imaging technique uses modified x-rays to prepare three-dimensional cross-sectional “slices” of the body? (d) CT – computed technology scan. ▯ 9. The (a) patellar region is the “front” of the knee. ▯ 10. The sub-discipline of anatomy that examines structure not readily seen by the unaided eye is (b) microscopic anatomy. ▯ ▯ Content Review ▯ 1. Distinguish between cytology and histology. Cytology is the study of cells, while histology is the study of tissues. ▯ 2. What properties are common to all living things? metabolism, adaptation, reproduction, growth and development, organization, responsiveness, regulation ▯ 3. List the levels of organization in a human, starting at the simplest level and proceeding to the most complex. Use arrows to connect the levels. chemical cellular tissue organ organ system organismal ▯ 4. What are the organ systems in the human body? integumentary, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, reproductive, lymphatic, reproductive, respiratory, skeletal, muscular, endocrine, ▯ 5. Describe the body in the anatomic position. Why is the anatomic position used? Anatomic position has the person standing erect with feet parallel and flat on the floor, head straight and eyes forward, arms by the sides with palms facing forward. This provides a universal way of describing position of parts of the body in relation to one another and the position of the body itself. ▯ 6. Describe the difference between the directional terms superior and inferior. Superior means above and inferior means below. ▯ 7. List the anatomic term that describes each of the following body regions: forearm, wrist, chest, armpit, thigh, and foot. antebrachial, carpal, pectoral, axillary, femoral, pes ▯ 8. What are the two body cavities within the posterior aspect, and what does each cavity contain? cranial cavity contains the brain; vertebral canal contains spinal cord ▯ 9. Describe the structure and the function of serous membranes in the body. Serous membranes are two-layered (a parietal outside layer and a visceral layer covering organs inside) and have a mucus between them in a serous cavity, which is a space that can become a larger cavity. They secrete a serous fluid in the serous cavity that lubricates organs to prevent friction when they slide against one another. ▯ 10. Describe which medical imaging techniques are best suited for examining soft tissues, and which are better suited for examining harder body tissues, such as bone. MRI, PET, CT, DSR, DSA, and Sonography, are methods used for examining soft tissues. Radiography and CT scans are better for examining dense body tissues, like bone. ▯ ▯ ▯
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