Human Biology Week Two Notes
Human Biology Week Two Notes BIO 151
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Notetaker on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 151 at Central Michigan University taught by Professor Learman in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 01/14/16
Notes for Week Two, January 19 and 21 Critical Thinking Skills: 1) Be a critic -question the experimental methods (was important information omitted?) -look for assumptions and biases 1 ---anecdotes vs judgment, supposed ‘evidence’vs fact -how reliable is the source? Has it had a peer review? ---be aware of media distortion 2 -correlation doesn’t equal causation 3 2) Maintain perspective -be open-minded to having previous assumptions or beliefs proven wrong, or just to learning something new—this is how one forms educated opinions 4 -be conscious of and considerate to different perspectives 3) Have self-confidence 1 Anecdotes are pieces of ‘everyone knows’knowledge. Think of the quotation ‘blood is thicker than water’, which people use today to say family is more important than friendship. The original quotation is from the Bible, and in its entirety is ‘The blood of the covenant is thicker than the water of the womb’and it’s used to state that the blood soldiers shed in battle binds them more closely than who you just happen to be related to. TL;DR don’t trust anecdotes, they’re frequently wrong. 2 Media says “There are twice as many Swine Flu (H1N1) victims this year as last year.” What it means “Last year there was one victim, in the entire Western Hemisphere, this year there are two.” Ermagerd. 3 ‘ Ferdinand fell on the ground and it’s winter, the ground must be slippery.’Sure, possible. Or Ferdinand’s just a clumsy bloke. Just because he fell and the conditions are right for ice doesn’t mean it’s the ice’s fault. 4 We think Ferdinand is clumsy for falling. But maybe he should have just waited until he got to his car to put his stiletto heels on. -don’t be intimidated by complex wording or bias propaganda—ignorance has a big mouth and it likes to be loud. Yes consider others’opinions, but if you have scientific facts in front of you, stick to those guns bro. How many scientists were ridiculed for their science? 5 Biological Literacy – is important for the maintenance of your and others’health When choosing a physician, consider MD or a DO? -MD stands for Medicinae Doctor, and an MD is more systematic, he or she will typically look at different pieces of your body, such as the ear-nose-and-throat fella or that foot and ankle chick -DO stands for Doctor of Osteopathic medicince, and both MDs and DOs are trained very similarly. ADO will look at your body as a whole, often ask questions about your lifestyle, and are often your primary caregivers, as they’re meant to look after all of you rather than specialize. -Know when to get additional opinions; also consider that there is such a thing as too many opinions. -Know the types of medications and treatments available to you, and look up studies done for said medications/treatments, as well as the side effects . ---viruses vs antibiotics (virus gonna win every time) ---know there are always options to your treatment, though some may not be available or viable in your case -Do your homework 5 Galileo, Isaac Newton, Ignaz Semmelweis, Darwin, Alfred Wegener (I could go on.) 6 ‘This anti-depressant may cause increased thoughts of suicide’ring any bells? It’s a scary world, my friends. ---check reliable sources, conflict of interest , propaganda, think critically at every step 21 January Humans are composed of: atoms, molecules, macromolecules, water cells, function codes, and a bunch more. ‘Life is a series of chemical reactions.’ -Transformations (the breaking down or building up of matter) 9 -Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space: gas, solid, liquid, plasma ---Matter is composed of atoms, the smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down or deconstructed. -Elements – the pure form of an atom; atoms with a unique organization, characteristics and behavior ---25% of the elements are essential to life. ---The Percent Composition is the composition of each of the twenty-five essential elements in the human body but Excel frightens me and I was not about to fix the title. 7 Such as when you ask your hair stylist if he thinks you need a haircut. It’s his job to say yes. 8 Cell division to make more cells, food being digested and absorbed, air being absorbed by the bloodstream 9 Which is a type of ‘energized’gas that we don’t need to know about for this class, but it’s relevant to your knowledge in general: http://education.jlab.org/qa/plasma_01.html 10 Other: sulfur, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chlorine Other 15 Elements – less than 0.1% of your body is composed of these. Atoms are composed of and characterized by three subatomic particles, each of which are located at specific places within the atom, designate mass and charge (and thus the potential reactivity of the atom), and the number and behavior of the electrons in particular determine the behavior and interactions between atoms. -Atoms can carry a charge—most are neutral -Ions have unequal protons to electrons: positive charge if they have more protons, negative charge if they have more electrons. -Atoms have mass—neutrons and protons contribute to it. To scale, if an atom were the size of a baseball stadium the nucleus would be the size of a pea and the electrons would be the size of mosquitoes. 10 It took me at least ten minutes and nineteen gray hairs to figure out how to make this graph so appreciate it. ---Changing the number of neutrons creates an isotope, which is an atom of the same element but with a different mass than the standard atom of that element, and it can be stable or unstable. -^12C – Carbon with 12 neutrons, stable (standard Carbon) -^13C – Carbon with 13 neutrons, weighs more than standard, stable -^14C – Carbon with 14 neutrons, weighs the most, unstable Unstable isotopes are called radioisotopes because they emit radiation. -Radiation can be harmful (killing cells) or beneficial (when used in medicine). ---The medicine makes the user temporarily radioactive; they must be quarantined for 5-15 days. Atoms connect through bonds to build stable molecules, with full electron outer shells. Molecule – two or more of the same atom bonded together (but sometimes used just to refer to a particle, such as a water molecule, which is composed of two different atoms) Compound – two or more different atoms bonded together -Characteristics/behaviors of the compound are usually different from those of its composite atoms. >Consider: elemental Sodium (Na) is a metal, and reacts explosively with water. Elemental Chlorine (Cl) is a yellow gas. But NaCl is table salt, and thank heavens is not explosive. Atoms can bond in varying ways, with varying strengths and chemistry. Strength of bonds: Covalent > Ionic > Hydrogen Covalent Bond – electrons are shared between two nuclei; the number of electrons shared determines the strength and structure of the bond. -They are shared in pairs: a single covalent bond is the sharing of two electrons between two atoms. Adouble bond is the sharing of four electrons. -They are counted by the number of electrons shared between each atom pair, not in the entire compound. The more electrons shared, the stronger the bond. Ionic Bond – charge-based attraction between ions with opposing charges. An ion is an atom that has an unusual or imbalanced number of electrons to protons. Acation is positively charged, having either lost an electron or having fewer electrons than protons. An anion is negatively charged, having either gained an electron or having more electrons than protons. (Electrons are not shared in ionic bonds, the atoms just happen to like each other.) Hydrogen Bond – a weak, electrical attraction (through a Hydrogen atom) between oppositely ‘charged’regions of the two molecules. -Such as the bond between H2O molecules, but not within the molecule itself. -The ‘charge’results from temporary placements and positions of electrons within the participating molecule. -Hydrogen bonds stabilize large biological molecules (DNA). 11 -They also give H2O its unique properties ---The Oxygen atom is slightly negatively ‘charged’because the Oxygen has a greater number of protons, attracting the electrons of the Hydrogen atoms it’s covalently 12 bonded to and causing them to, in general, spend more time circling around Oxygen than around Hydrogen and lending it to be ‘negative’, and thus Hydrogen will be ‘positive’. Aside note on water’s unique properties (WHICH YOU MAYSKIP): Water is unique in that when it makes the phase change from liquid to solid it gains volume and loses density, whereas most other (if not all, but I can’t say all because I don’t know) elements and compounds and things lose volume and gain density. It makes sense for most everything else: things that are compressed get smaller (lose volume) and get ‘thicker’ so to speak (gain density). Think of a bowl of chips as your average liquid. All those chips take up a lot of space when they’re whole/liquid. Smash them down into a powder and suddenly they take up less space/volume and there’s less air between each chip, making them more dense. Water, on the other hand, because of how its molecules are charged, gains volume because when water freezes its molecules align into an ordered structure of Oxygen to Hydrogen with all of its neighboring molecules. When the molecules organized like that, they have more space between them. Because there is more space between them, they also have fewer molecules to any given amount of volume, therefore less mass to volume, and less density. This is why ice 11 Like water tension. The negatively ‘charged’Oxygen atom in the compound attracts the positively ‘charged’Hydrogen atoms of other H2O molecules, causing a Hydrogen bond. 12 Despite only having one electron Hydrogen can still form covalent bonds because one of the atoms being shared comes from the Oxygen atom. floats, even when most other solids would sink through their respective liquids, and even though ice is colder than water and cold has the habit of sinking. Cold air is also more dense than hot air, but that’s a different spiel altogether. In-Class Activity 2) Rank from largest to smallest: electron, element, atom, molecule 3) Which of the three discussed bonds would require the least energy to break and why? Which would require the most energy? 2a) molecule, atom/element, electron The atom and the element are considered the same because an atom is the smallest indivisible particle and each one is also a representation of a specific element, and the specific element can only be represented by a specific atom. You could argue that an Oxygen element is bigger than the Hydrogen atom so should be considered bigger, but then I’d tell you that an ‘atom’is a concrete noun and an ‘element’is just a classification for each atom. It’s kind of a trick question, pay attention. 3a) Hydrogen bonds require the least amount of energy to break. Why? Because they don’t technically ‘share’any electrons, a Hydrogen bond is just a force, kind of like an ionic bond, except ionic bonds are stronger because they involve definite charges. Ionic bonds would be the next easiest to break. Covalent bonds require the most energy to break because they actually share electrons, and they share two or more. Those electrons also spend relatively equal time zooming around each nuclei, which makes them strong. Hydrogen bonds are based on temporary ‘charges’based on the movements of the electrons. *Remember there is homework due—check Blackboard for it—on Tuesday the 26 of January.*