BIOL 1040 notes, Chapter 34
BIOL 1040 notes, Chapter 34 BIOL 1040
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Stewart on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1040 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Surver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Clemson University.
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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Sarah!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
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Date Created: 01/14/16
Chapter 34: Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System Lecture given 1/14/16 • Animals have various ways of digesting food • As animals get more complex, they tend to compartmentalize the digestive process • Cells must specialize and perform specific tasks • Animals can be herbivores (eat only plants), carnivores (eat only meat), or omnivores (eat both) Types of Digestive Systems • Food vacuoles (sponges) • Gastrovascular cavity (incomplete cavity) – food enters and is expelled from the same cavity • Alimentary canal – a digestive system with 2 openings, one for taking in food, and another for expelling waste Accessory digestive glands – organs that aid in digestion, but are not a part of the system i.e. salivary glands, the liver, and the pancreas. The Oral Cavity • Digestion begins here • Both mechanical and chemical digestion occurs here • Chewing; the tongue tastes/shapes food into a bolus • Salivary glands release a glycoprotein that moistens/lubricates food, neutralizes acids • Salivary amylase – enzyme that begins the hydrolysis of starch • Lingual lipase –triglycerides broken down, released by tongue Peristalsis – the contractions of muscles in the esophagus that moves food down to the stomach The Stomach • pH of the stomach very low/very acidic, pH 2 • Gastric juice consists of mucus, protein-digesting enzymes, and a strong acid • Pepsinogen and HCl secreted into the lumen of the stomach - Pepsinogen converted into pepsin by HCl - Pepsin begins chemical digestion of proteins The Small Intestine • Major organ of chemical digestion and absorption • Chyme (food material passed from stomach) mixes with digestive juices from pancreas, liver, and gland cells • Alkaline pH, enzymes in intestine need high pH to function • High surface area allows for maximum absorption • Increased by villi (folds) in intestinal lining, which contain even smaller folds called microvilli The Large Intestine (Colon) • Has pouch called a cecum where it meets the small intestine, contains appendix • Contains large population of E. coli, produce vitamins • Absorbs vitamins and water into bloodstream, which helps form feces Food Processing Occurs in 4 stages: 1. Ingestion 2. Digestion 3. Absorption 4. Elimination Breakdown of macromolecules occurs: Protein -----------> amino acids Disaccharide ----------> monosaccharide Nucleic acid ----------> nucleotides Fat ----------> fatty acid
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